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Los Alamos National Laboratories
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- neural network
x-ray Papcun, George
Thomas, Timothy R.
Inferring articulation and recognizing gestures from acoustics with a neural network trained on x-ray microbeam data N/A
J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 92 688-700 August 1992 U [Summary by MW]: This paper describes a method for inferring articulatory parameters from acoustics with a neural network trained on paired acoustic and articulatory data. An X-ray microbeam recorded the vertical movements of the lower lip, tongue tip, and tongue dorsum of three speakers saying the English stop consonants in repeated Ce syllables. A neural network was then trained to map from simultaneously recorded acoustic data to the articulatory data. To evaluate learning, acoustics from the training set were passed through te neural network. The articulatory trajectories thus inferred were a good fit to the actual movements in both the learning and generalization conditions, as judged by root-mean-square error and correlation. Inferred trajectories were also matched to templates of lower lip, tongue tip, and tongue dorsum release gestures extracted from the original data. This technique correctly recognized from 94.4% to 98.9% of all gestures in the learning and cross-speaker generalization conditions, and 75% of gestures underlying consonants excluded from the training set. In addition, greater regularity was observed for movements of articulators that were critical in the formation of each consonant.
- Legal Issues
Forensics Jasanoff Biology and the Bill of Rights: Can Science Reframe the Constitution? American Journal of Law and Medicine 13 249 1988 U
- Legal Issues
Human Genome Project Karjala A Legal Research Agenda for the Human Genome Initiative Jurimetrics (Special Issue: The Human Genome Initiative) 32 (2) 121-311 Winter 1992 U
voice Papcun, George Speech and Speaker Recognition And Related Speech Technologies Based on Inferred Articulatory Parameters Los Alamos National Laboratory (White Paper) LANL White Paper N/A 1-5 (& Appendices) Unknown Los Alamos National Laboratory U [Summary by MW]: This white paper describes a speech recognition system that has been developed and implemented at the Applied Research Section of the Computing Division at Los Alamos National laboratory. The system is based on using a neural network to learn the relationships between speech acoustics and speech articulation (i.e., the movements of the tongue, the lips, the velum, etc.). Following a system overview, I describe the present and planned implementations. Next, I present some results we have obtained. This leads to a brief statement of work proposed, followed by a list of reasons to do the propsed work at Los Alamos as opposed to elsewhere. An appendix discusses the theoretical foundations of our approach and presents arguments that our approach will produce results much better than have previously been achieved when it is incorporated as a component of a complete speech recognition system.
voice Unknown Voice Authentication Based on Inferred Articulatory Parameters Los Alamos National Laboratory (White Paper) LANL White Paper N/A N/A Unknown Los Alamos National Laboratory U We have developed and implemented a system that accurately infers articulatory movements from speech sounds. We propose to use this technology as a basis for a voice authentification system based on inferring vocal tract parameters from the speech signal. Such a voice authentication system correctly makes use of the special characteristics of voice as a medium for authentication. On the one hand, voice authentication is somewhat similar to handwriting identification in that both depend on differences among learned patterns of behavior. Yet voice authentication differs from handwriting identification in that it more directly reflects the physiognomy of the speaker as well as patterns of behavior. In this respect it is somewhat like identification by fingerprints or other directly biometric methods. Th eunique technology we have developed allows us to make use of both the learned patterns of behavior and the physiological basis of voice authentication in a way that other approaches do not. Additionally, the use of inferred articulatory parameters can be combined with other approaches to voice authentication, resulting in improved composite results.
Prior research we have done on human listeners recommends a two stage process of voice authentication. The first stage involves using mean values of inferred articulatory parameters. Thus a first-order authentication involves locating a speaker's mean values in the space of the parameters of all speakers in the database. The second stage of authentication involves seeking and recognizing specific idiosyncrasies known to characterize the speaker. In terms of a spatial metaphor, this two-stage process requires that to be authenticated a speaker must be located in an appropriate region of general space and have the correct idiosyncratic characteristics. This combination of requirements will insure system security greater than could otherwise be achieved. The proposed system also has the potential for text-independent voice authentication and speaker identification. Because English (as well as other languages) can be characterized by a relatively small number of gestures (less than twenty), it is possible to assemble a complete inventory of gestures for each speaker to be authenticated. Consequently, it will be possible to authenticate or identify a speaker regardless of what he or she says.
Animated Display of Inferred Tongue, Lip, and Jaw Movements During Speech
(Los Alamos National Laboratory 1992 R&D 100 Award Winner) Kay Adams, Industrial Partnership Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS K763
Los Alamos, NM 87545 Phone: (505)665-9090 FAX: (505)665-3164 N/A N/A N/A September, 1992 Los Alamos National Laboratory U [Summary by MW]: This is a review pamphlet describing a system developed by George Papcun, Timothy Thomas, and Judith Hochberg, all of the Computing and Communications Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory, which won a 1992 R&D 100 award. The system infers from acoustic input what movements a speaker's lips, tongue, and jaw would make and then simulates an appropriate x-ray picture on the screen. This system can be used for applications ranging from biometric security to speech therapy.
acoustic Papcun, George A NEW APPROACH TO COMPUTERIZED SPEECH ANALYSIS N/A Laboratory Directed Research and Development Newsletter N/A N/A July, 1992 Los Alamos National Laboratory U [Summary by MW]: This is an overview of the approach to computerized speech analysis developed by George Papcun and others of C-3 at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Essentially, this system infers articulatory data from acoustic input. This is done through a database which was created by a neural network initially processing both acoustic and articulatory input.
Personal Identification News (PIN) Ben Miller
Personal Identification News N/A N/A Monthly Warfel & Miller, Inc. U [Summary by MW]: This is a monthly newsletter on biometrics and personnel identification/verification. Subscription rate is $315/year. They also publish a 'Biometric Industry Directory' that is available for about $75 or is free with a subscription to PIN.
eye Johnston, Roger G. ,Ph.D.
Can Iris Patterns Be Used to Identify People? Allen Hartford, Jr., CLS Division Leader Chemical and Laser Sciences Division, Annual Report LA-12331-PR 81-86 1991 Los Alamos National Laboratory U [Summary by MW]: Review of the ongoing work by Roger Johnston of LANL (CLS-2) on development of an accurate and reliable biometric verification/identification technique based upon the patterns present in the iris of the eye.
fingerprint Rinkenberger, Glenn
Chandos, Ron NON-FORGEABLE PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM USING CRYPTOGRAPHY AND BIOMETRICS UNK Proceedings of the 13th National Computer Security Conference N/A 80-89 UNK Motorola Government Electronics Group U [Summary by MW]: This paper describes a concept for combining cryptographic and biometric techniques to provide an unforgeable set of identification credentials absolutely linked to only the rightful owner. These credentials can then be presented at a remote site, and provide convincing proof that the presenter is who he claims to be and that he holds the privileges he claims to hold. A fully operational feasibility model, based on facial image and fingerprint biometrics, is described. Also discussed is a method for adapting the concept to validate users of the STU-III secure telephone, and a multi-user computer network.
- electronic access
technology Perry, Randy M. ELECTRONIC ACCESS CONTROL-Five Predictions for the 90's
UNK UNK 47-67 UNK UNK U [Summary by MW]: Summation of predictions by the author of how electronic-access technology will evolve through the 90's=2E Predictions include:
1) High technology will continue to drive the market
2) Systems integration will play a larger role
3) Double digit growth rates will continue
4) A global market will emerge
5) The industry will be more competitive
Focus is especially centered on development of biometric technologies.
voice Maxwell, Russell L.
Performance Testing Biometric Verifiers
UNK UNK 84-89 March, 1990 Sandia National Labs U The performance and availability of the five basic identity verifiers can now meet the requirements of most physical and information security needs. However, with the lack of any evaluation standards, the independent testing of verifiers requires care with due consideration for both parts of the verifier systems; the verifier hardware and software, and the user with his biometric features, which is the least consistent part of the system. The method of teating and data processing must be done with care and should be reported along with reduced results.
voice Ashbourn, Julian 1) The acceptance of Biometrics in europe for Access Control purposes.
2) A look at the readily available techniques.
3) Other applications, and the future marketplace. UNK UNK UNK 22-28 UNK UNK U [Summary by MW]: Summary of biometrics technologies and possible applications in the European sector. Includes typical general discussion of biometrics.
fingerprint Antenucci, Tony DEA and Biometrics UNK UNK UNK 29-34 UNK UNK U [Summary by MW]: General discussion of biometrics and practical applications to use by the Drug Enforcement Administration.
- entry control
Robaldo (LT, USAF) 1823EE67, ENTRY CONTROL SYSTEM (ECS) N/A N/A AD-TR-86-53 73 Summer 1985 DTIC (AD C040138L) S Summer 85 projection, qualification test and evaluation of security access systems designed to enhance identification of individuals at entry control points by evaluation of biometric measurements. Two systems, by different manufacturers, yet to be selected, will be tested. Major components of this system are based on commercial equipment presently available.
- hand geometry
QT&E Galliher, D. 1823ZE01-15, THREE DIMENSIONAL HAND GEOMETRY PERSONAL IDENTITY VERIFIER (PIV) QT&E (BISS) N/A N/A AD-TR-89-1 N/A 17 May-14 Oct. 88 DTIC (AD B129629) U The Recognition Systems 3-D hand geometry personal identity verifier was tested at Eglin AFB FL, test site C-3. The 3-D PIV uses the enrollees hand size; thickness, lemgth and thickness of fingers, and size of the webbed area between the fingers to provide usable attributes for biometric identification.
- integrated system
munitions storage Hayes, C.
Bowman (MSgt , USAF) 1823ZE18, KIRTLAND UNDERGROUND MUNITIONS STORAGE COMPLEX (KUMSC) ADVANCE ENTRY CONTROL INTEGRATED INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEM (AECIIDS) Qualification Test and Evaluation (QT&E) N/A N/A AFDTC-TR-91-54 73 Mar-Jun 1991 DTIC U This Qualification Test and Evaluation (QT&E) was conducted to evaluate the Kirtland Underground Munitions Storage Complex (KUMSC) Advanced Entry Control Integrated Intrusion Detection System (AECIIDS). The KUMSC AECIIDS is an assortment of security sensors and subsystems integrated into an overall security system to provide protection of the KUMSC facilities. The KUMSC AECIIDS at Kirtland AFB NM was designed to protect the underground munitions storage facility which is capable of storing the most current Air Force, Army, and Navy resources.
- entry control
integrated system Hayes, C.
Galliher, D. 1823ZE29, ELLSWORTH ENTRY CONTROL SYSTEM (EECS) QUALIFICATION TEST AND EVALUATION (QT&E) N/A N/A AFDTC-TR-92-10 N/A Jan 1992 DTIC U The Ellsworth entry control system QT&E was conducted at Ellsworth AFB SD between 20 Nov 91 and 3 Jan 92. The Ellsworth Entry Control System was made up of eight major component systems. The entry control central processing unit, entry control console (using touch screens), entry control portals (Cambell booths), ID-3D hand geometry unit, remote alarm panel, enrollment station (Kodak badge system), off-line reporting station, and uninterruptible power supply (TOPAZ).
independent Molva, Refik
Tsudik, Gene Secure and Inexpensive Authentication with Minimalist Smartcards
N/A IBM Research Division Report RZ2315 1-12 April 16, 1992 IBM U Traditional authentication of human users suffers from an important weakness owing to the low degree of randomness in secrets that a human being can use for identification. Even though weak secrets (e.g., PINs) are typically not exposed in the clear over the communication lines, they can be discovered with off-line brute force attacks based on exhaustive trials. Since such secrets are chosen from a relatively small key space, an intruder can try all possible values until a match is found between the trial value and the message recorded from a genuine authentication session. Smartcards offer an attractive solution by providing a user with a cryptographically strong key for authentication. In contrast to passwords and PINs, a smartcard's key can be chosen from a much larger key space thus making a brute force attack computationally infeasible or, at least, difficult.
In this paper we present a novel smartcard design and associated authenication protocol where the smartcard is used solely to provide a secure channel between a human user and an authentication server (AS). Since the communication channel is made secure by the smartcard, the human user can still utilize weak secrets for authentication purposes, but without any risk of exposure. Furthermore, the smartcard's and the user's secrets are mutually independent, i.e., the smartcard is not associated with any particular user; its only responsibility is to assist the user in the authentication process. Since the smartcard is not personalized, it can be shared by several users. This new concept eliminates the high cost of administration which is typical of existing designs that employ fixed user-smartcard relationship. Moreover, this new design does not require any interface between the smartcard and the workstation (e.g., a galvanic connection) which is difficult to implement on a global scale and retrofit onto existing equipment.
Holmes, James P.
Maxwell, Russell L.
Wright, Larry J. A PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF BIOMETRIC IDENTIFICATION DEVICES UNK Nuclear Materials Management 31st Annual Proceedings XIX 895-901 July, 1990 Institute of Nuclear Materials Management U A biometric identification device is an automatic device that can verify a person's identity from a measurement of a physical feature or repeatable action of the individual. A reference measurement of the biometric is obtained when the individual is enrolled on the device. Subsequent verifications are made by comparing the submitted biometric feature against the reference sample. Sandia Laboratories has been evaluating the relative performance of several identity verifiers, using volunteer test subjects. Sandia testing methods and results are discussed.
finger length Unknown Entry-Control Systems Technology Transfer Manual Paul R. Laplante N/A SAND 87-1927 31-41 July 1989 Sandia National Laboratory U The screening of personnel entering a controlled access area is based on access authorization and identity verification. Three methods can be used to establish the connection between access authorization and the identity of a person being granted access. These are:
1. Something possessed by the person, such as a key or credential;
2. A memorized number, such as a PIN, or password; or
3. A personal characteristic of the individual, such as his appearance or some other biometric feature.
Personnel identity verification systems utilize one or more of these methods, and they can be further characterized as manual, machine-aided, or automatic.
general Maxwell, Russell L. The status of personnel identity verifiers UNK Nuclear Materials Management (26th Annual Meeting Proceedings Issue) 14 461-465 1985 UNK U No summary available at this time.
general Maxwell, Russell L.
Wright, Larry J. A performance evaluation of personnel identity verifiers UNK Nuclear Materials Management (28th Annual Meeting Proceedings Issue) 16 417-423 1987 UNK U No summary available at this time.
perceptron Perry, J.L.
Human face recognition using a multilayer perceptron UNK INNS Neural Network Conference, Washington D.C. II 413-416 January 1990 UNK U No summary available at this time.
translation Koch, M.W.
Aiken, S.W. A vision Architecture for scale, translation and rotation variance UNK INNS Neural Network Conference, Washington D.C. II 393-396 January, 1990 UNK U No summary available at this time.
- neural network
pattern recognition Spirovska, L.
Reid, M.B. Connectivity strategies for higher-order neural networks applied to pattern recognition UNK IEEE Neural Network Conference, San Diego, CA I 21-26 June 1990 UNK U No summary available at this time.
Frank, P. Fingerprint processing using back propagation neural networks UNK IEEE Neural Network Conference, San Diego, CA I 15-20 June 1990 UNK U No summary available at this time.
Cottrell, G.W. Categorization of faces using unsupervised feature extraction UNK IEEE Neural Network Conference, San Diego, CA II 65-70 June 1990 UNK U No summary available at this time.
feature extraction Cottrell, G.W.
Face Recognition using unsupervised feature extraction UNK International Conference on Neural Networks, Paris N/A 322-325 July 1990 UNK U No summary available at this time.
- polygraphy Papcun, George Four studies of polygraphy N/A Informal White Paper, Los Alamos National Laboratory N/A N/A May, 1989 LANL U No summary available at this time.
identification Papcun, George
A principled approach to speaker identification N/A Informal White Paper, Los Alamos National Laboratory N/A N/A July, 1989 LANL U No summary available at this time.
articulatory Papcun, George Speech and speaker recognition and related speech technologies based on inferred articulatory parameters N/A Formal White Paper to NSA N/A N/A April 1990 Los Alamos National Laboratory U No summary available at this time.
compression Bradley, J.N.
Image Compression by vector quantization of wavelet coefficients UNK N/A N/A UNK June 1991 Los Alamos National Laboratory U No summary available at this time.
- neural network
identification Castain, Ralph H. Effectiveness of neural networks for advanced security - the issue of unique identification N/A Draft Proposal, SST-11 N/A N/A 1990 Los Alamos National Laboratory U No summary available at this time.
identification Goldstein, A.J.
Lesk, A.B. Identification of human faces UNK Proceedings of IEEE 59, No. 5 748-760 1971 IEEE U No summary available at this time.
interaction Goldstein, A.J.
Lesk, A.B. Man-Machine Interaction in Human-Face Identification UNK Bell Systems Technical Journal 51, no. 2 399-427 1972 UNK U No summary available at this time.
identification Harmon, L.D.
Ramig, P.F. Machine Identification of Human Faces UNK Pattern Recognition 13, no. 2 97-110 1981 UNK U No summary available at this time.
profile Kaufman, J.R.
The Automatic Recognition of Human Faces from Profile Silhouettes UNK IEEE Trans. Sys, Man, Cyber 6 113-121 1976 UNK U No summary available at this time.
perceptron Perry, J.L.
Carney, J.M. Human Face Recognition Using a Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network UNK Technical Report (Ensco-sas-tr-90-01) (See above) N/A 1989 UNK U No summary available at this time.
evaluation Maxwell, Russell L. An identity verifier evaluation of performance UNK UNK SAND-87-2279C UNK 1989 Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, USA U No summary available at this time.
Anderson, J.A. A Physical System Approach to Recognition Memory for Spatially Transformed Faces UNK Neural Networks I 179-199 1988 UNK U No summary available at this time.
backpropagating Payne, Tanya
Castain, Ralph H. Investigating Facial Verification Systems Using Backpropagating Neural Networks UNK Submitted to: Proc. IJCNN, Boston, MA UNK UNK 1992 N/A U No summary available at this time.
perceptron Perry, J.L.
Carney, J.M. Human Face Recognition Using a Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network UNK Proc. INNS Neural Net Conf., Wash, DC II 413-416 1990 UNK U No summary available at this time.
neural network Solheim, I.
Castain, Ralph H. The potential in using Backpropagation Neural Networks for Facial verification systems UNK WINN-AIND, Auburn, AL N/A N/A 1992 UNK U No summary available at this time.
Nakamura, O. Description and matching of density variation for personal identification through facial images UNK SPIE Vol. 1360 Visual communication and image processing 1360 1694-1704 1990 UNK U No summary available at this time.
- access control
near infra-red Mehra, R.K.
Leonard, G. Proposal: Automatic Face Recognition System for Advanced Entry Control Systems &
Surveillance N/A DOD SBIR Project Proposal (AF 93-037) N/A N/A 14 January, 1993 N/A U Scientific Systems specializes in the introduction of complex technologies into system applications. To fully address the requirement for developing non-intrusive biometric sensors for relocatable security systems, Scientific Systems has teamed with Facia Reco Associates and Professor Pentland from MIT, who is the developer of a patented face recognition system.
Phase I addresses the testing of a face recognition system and establishes the criteria for selecting complimentary technology to produce dual phenomonology and close to 100% confidence-level assessments. Means of encoding facial images (bar codes and magnetic stripes) and use of near infra-red technology will also be examined. The prototype to be delivered in Phase II is a near-real-time face recognition system which detects and identifies human faces by comparing characteristics of the face to those of known individuals. The Air Force will be able to choose an appropriate platform for implementation of the system.
The SHERLOCK Facial Recognition Software (TM) system, based on MIT's patented system, will be utilized. This system has shown that it can readily extract the relevant information in a face image, encode it efficiently, and accurately compare a face encoding with a database encoded similarly.
general Huber, Daniel M.
USER IDENTIFICATION AND AUTHENTICATION (I&A) N/A UNK UNK UNK UNK UNK U User identification is the process whereby a user makes a claim as to his/her identity. Authentication is the process whereby that claim is verified.Authentication is most often thought of as human-to-machine but there are instances where machine-to-machine authentication may be required.
Authentication can be accomplished by one or more of the following methods:
- Something you know (e.g., a secret password)
- Something you possess (e.g., a unique token or key)
- Something you are (e.g., a fingerprint, signature, etc.)
Decaire, Dr. John A. (John Decaire & Associates) WHAT WILL MAKE BIOMETRICS GO?
UNK SecureTech 1992 Conference Proceedings UNK 159-162 1992 UNK U For several years, biometrics have been hailed as the identification technologies of the future for access control applications--yet the overall market size for biometrics hasremained disappointingly small. Are biometrics destined to forever be the emerging future technologies or will biometrics finally emerge as mainstream players in access control systems? As presented below, biometrics technologies, as a class, have some disadvantages relative to alternative technology approaches in mainstream applications. Some break-throughs in technology and/or customer value perceptions will be required before biometrics "will go!". Current trends in both technology and customer dimensions are generally favorable but biometrics, from market revenue and installed unit volume perspectives, are probably to remain emerging future technologies for at least a few more years.
The intent herein is to examine biometrics as a general technology class from a macroscopic viewpoint in the context of access control applications. Details of the various individual biometric technologies are therefore not addressed. Analysis is based on macroscopic characterizations of the technologies, customers and applications. Since top-level business success factors are often lost sight of in the rush to "sell" technology (seemingly quite prevalent in the biometrics experience of this author), it's worth restating that a successful business provides products and/or services to customers, with an attractive value-to-price as perceived by the customers, and accomplishes these products and services at favorable price-to-cost ratios.
sale Carlson, Barton K. Signature Capture and Verification: Its Impact at the Retail Point of Sale UNK SecureTech 1992 Conference Proceedings UNK 163-166 1992 UNK U The ability to capture a person's signature and compare it against a stored template holds great promise for simplifying the identification and payment process at the retail point of sale. The signature has been an accepted form of ID for centuries, but with today's new technology, it could become the standard for electronic payment transactions by the end of the nineties.
performance Natkin, Len (CTA, Inc.) Performance Evaluation of Biometric Identification Devices: A New Approach UNK SecureTech 1992 Conference Proceedings UNK 167-175 1992 UNK U A multi phased effort is currently underway which will examine biometric identification devices based on several key criteria. The resulting assessments will form the nucleus of an overall product rating which will then be used in establishing product standards. Drawing on similarities to Underwriter's Lab, the premise that both consumer and manufacturer could benefit from an effort that could achieve full evaluation in a cost effective, timely, yet scientifically sound manner seems long overdue.
In February 1991, the Intelligence Community Staff issued a draft report entitled Biometric Access Control Device Evaluation Criteria. This report specified eight criteria which would collectively define the suitability or "measure of merit" of such devices. These eight criteria are: Integration, Performance, Cost, Product Availability, Usability, Security Considerations, Reliability-Maintainability-Availability, and Operational Utility. Each of these recommended criterion is deserving of consideration. Evaluating biometric devices against these criteria will require the development of an effective and repeatable methodology that can be applied in an independent environment. We have designed a three phased approach to accomplish full evaluation. But, for the scope of this discussion, we will concentrate on one criterion which we have selected for our first phase, Performance.
smartcard Nishite, Gary (California DMV)
Large Scale ID Systems - On the Horizon UNK SecureTech 1992 Conference Proceedings UNK 195-202 1992 UNK U Advancing technology has an impact throughout society, and the application of emerging processes as business solutions has become relevant to both government and private industry. Technology also allows us to take on bigger tasks than ever before, and can enable us to work smarter, rather than harder. Of particular interest to those of us in government who administer motor vehicle programs is the growing sophistication of identification systems to handle populations as large as our constituent base.
FBI Barry, Robert (FBI) Integrated Automated Fingerprint ID System UNK SecureTech 1992 Conference Proceedings UNK 203-210 July, 1991 UNK U Current trends and developments indicate that in the years to come, fingerprint identification will play a much wider role in law enforcement. Because of this trend the ederal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) Identification Division (ID) is pursuing a strategic plan to rebuild and improve essential services for its criminal justice users.
- computer security
authentication Conn, Alex P. (DEC)
Parodi, John H. (DEC)
Taylor, Michael (DEC) The Place of Biometrics in a User Authentication Taxonomy UNK Proceedings of the 13th National Computer Security Conference UNK 72-79 UNK UNK U The characteristics of biometric authentication are discussed in the context of a taxonomy of authentication methods. The relative merits of passwords, smartcards, "see-through" authentication devices, and biometric authentication devices are described. Biometric authentication is not a panacea. It is a valid application of technology only if the physical security of the biometric reader is assured; biometric authentication is imperfect as a network-wide authentication scheme primarily because biometric characteristics are not secret.
biometric product vendors Huber, Daniel M.
CardTech/SecurTech Conference UKN UKN UKN April 18-21, 1993 UKN U This year's CardTech/SecurTech conference is April 18-21, 1993 in Crystal City, Virginia. There are usually a few seminars on biometrics as well as numerous biometric product vendors. Call above number for registration.
technology not accurate
iris pattern recognition
The Measures of Man The Economist UKN 102-103 September 19-25, 1992 UKN U [Summary by KD]: This paper talks about the different uses of biometrics to identify people. They have electronic devices to identify a person by their fingerprints, handprints, iris pattern, and they are trying to teach machines to recognize signatures and voices. The problem with fingerprint and handprint devices is if you install them to tight it may turn a person away by mistake, and if you put it to loose it may let in an unwanted person. One answer to this problem is to use one PIN and biometric trade. If successful, it may greatly reduce the rate of credit card fraud and other things. Some feel that the iris pattern is the best way to go because a person can constantly be monitored with a camera.
biometric retinal (eye) scanners
Garcia, Cristina Putting the Finger on Security Time Magazine Vol.133 No.14 79 April 3,1989 UKN U [Summary by KD]: This paper talks about the use of biometrics for security purposes. The main attraction for using biometrics is that it is virtually foolproof. They are predicting that biometrics will eventually make keys and combination locks obsolete. People would no longer have to worry about lost keys or stolen credit cards. The technology currently being used is a fingerprint detector, an eye scanner, and voice verification. These methods are being used by small companies, the military, prisons, nuclear plants and research labs. One limit on the spread of biometrics has been the high price, but as with many other electronic devices the cost could come down rapidly.
- Hof, Robert D. Forget the I.D.
__Let's See Your Eyeball Business Week No. 3080 111-112 November 21, 1988 UKN U [Summary by KD]:
- Rogers, Micheal The Electronic Informer Newsweek Magazine Vol.105 Issue 15 88 &90 April 15,1985 UKN U [Summary by KD]:
- Speaker Verification
Voice Authentication Swanson, Carolyn J.
Speaker Verification Using LPC Report Number RADC-TR-88-106 326 page count May 1988 USGO agencies and their contractors; critical technology; May 88. U The objective of this program was to build as Advanced Development Model speaker verification system with stand-alone terminal operation to satisfy the Department of Defense requirement for automated entry control systems. The goals for Type I (rejection of a valid user) and Type II (acceptance of an imposter) error rates were 1 percent and 0.1 percent, respectively.
Both the host computer and the speaker verification terminal are based on a Texas Instruments Professional Computer with Speech Command System and special Analog Input/Output Board. The host is responsible for higher level tasks such as the storage of speaker verification templates, the calculation and storage of verification statistics, and the initiation of speaker enrollment and verification. Both enrollment and verification take place at the terminal under the control of the host; communication between the host and the terminal is via an RS-232C link.
A formal test of the system was conducted during April-November 1986=2E The purpose of this test was to demonstrate the Type I and Type II error rates over a balanced population of male and female participants.
There were 11002 post-post-enrollment true speaker trails, and of these, there were 63 rejections for a true speaker rejection rate of 0.57 percent.
There were 40349 casual imposter attempts during the course of the formal test. The testing yielded 38 acceptances, for a casual imposter acceptance rate of 0.09 percent.
- Entry Control
Performance Evaluation Evaluation Techniques for Entry Control Devices Report Number RADC -TR- 84-245 216 page count December 1984 Distribution limited to DoD components only; software documentation; Dec 84. U The problem of making performance comparisons of entry control devices employing personal characteristics such as fingerprints, handwrighting or speech is investigated. Factors which affect the ability of an analyst to evaluate the performance of devices on an equal basis are identified and a methodology is established to allow for standardized comparisons between different device types. Also, an optimization procedure is described to support the selection of a device type for a specific application. The procedure employs a computer based decision support model for evaluating multiple attributes.
Software Nelson, Mark R., Dr.
Shohara, Nori M. Data Collection Analysis and Test Report Number RADC-TR-80-366 Page count 134 December 1980 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. U This report discusses the results of an effort to determine an experimental procedure for the collection of data bases to be used in testing and evaluating present and future voice, fingerprint, and signature authentication techniques. Areas covered include how much data and what information should be collected, and how it should be collected and stored.
Software Lee, Eugene H.
Nelson, Mark Ph.D. Universal Transparent Simulator (Unitrans) Report Number RADC-TR-80-342 page count 88 November 1980 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. U The Universal Transparent Simulator (UNITRANS) idea was conceived by IRAA personnel as a potential relief to the high cost of testing entry control systems prior to their acceptance by the Air Force. A previous field test of Speech, Fingerprint, and Handwriting systems involved thousands of entrants and the work of many technically skilled personnel to test the three systems in the field. The UNITRANS effort therefore was an initial attempt to develop a universal machine testing device which could impact a variety of electronic signals to personnel identification and authentication equipments, and obtain a response which could be used as a substitute for the testing by entrants. The work of the contract demonstrated that the techniques available need much further development work.
- Identify verification
Correlation analysis Ostrem, John S.
Crane, Hewitt D. Automatic Handwriting Verification (AHV) Report Number RADC-TR-81-328 page count 84 November 1981 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. U Over a four-month period, 5,220 signatures and 1,740 numeric "Signatures" were collected from 59 subjects writing with the SRI pen. Twelve trained "forgers" attempted 648 forgeries; they were given copies of the true-signer signatures as well as information about how the SRI system works and what measures would be used to perform the signature verification. The forgers were also allowed to practice there forgeries and to view video tapes of the true signers writing their signatures. Data were analyzed to determine Type I/Type II error curves and average access time. For typical conditions, the True vs. Forgeries Type I/Type II equal-error rate was on the order of one percent, and the average access time, including the time to write the signature, was 8.5 seconds. These results are based on a features algorithm for signature verification significant improvement may be achieved with the features technique if the feature sets are individualized for each user. Even greater improvement can be achieved with a correlation method of analysis, although this requires an increase in memory storage costs and computer processing time.
- Speaker Verification
Entry Control Davis, Robert L.
Sinnamon, James T.
Cox, David L.
Voice Verification Upgrade Report number RADC-TI-82-139 page count 254 June 1982 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. U This contract had two major objectives. The first was to build, test, and deliver to the government an entry control system using speaker verification (voice authentication) as the mechanism for verifying the user's claimed identity. This system included a physical mantrap, with an integral weight scale to prevent more than one user from gaining access with one verification (tailgating). The speaker verification part of the entry control system contained all the updates and embellishments to the algorithm that was developed earlier for the BISS (Base and Installation Security System) system under contract with the Electronic Systems Division of the USAF. These updates were tested prior to and during the contract on an operational system used at Texas Instruments in Dallas, Texas, for controlling entry to the Corporate Information Center (CIC). Rather than update the existing BISS-ASV-ADM (BISS - Automatic Speaker Verification - Advanced Development Model), the complete, updated algorithm was provided to the Air Force on a totally new system of three computers, which was tested for six months at Texas Instruments. Over 13,000 accesses were performed using this system, with less than 1.0% of the users being refused access based on their vocal characteristics the users being refused access based on their vocal characteristics (0.75% if users limited to two attempts). Off-line tests of casual imposters yielded an error rate of less than 1.0% with an over 90% confidence level. This Voice Verification Upgrade (VVU) system has been delivered and installed at Rome Air Development Center, Griffiss Air Force Base, New York, and is operational in the RADC/IRAA Laboratory.
The second purpose of this contract was the continued research into voice authentication algorithms and entry control system performance. Pursuant to these objectives, the following studies were performed:
1. a trade-off study on speaker verification performance as a function of the prompting words,
2. a simulation of booth traffic for an entry control system using speaker verification, and
3. a study of speaker verification performance using an LPC-based prediction residual.
The last of these three studies was by far the most extensive, and provided an order of magnitude improvement in performance, resultion in performance exceeding that set as goals for this contract (<1.0 % true speaker rejections and <0.1% impostor acceptances). Included in this study was the completion of an on-line, real-time demonstration of the LPC-based speaker verification method on the VAX 11/780 at the Speech System Research Laboratory at the Texas Instruments facility in Dallas.
- Optical Processing
Feature Extraction Young, J.R.
Hammon, R. W. Automatic Palmprint Verification Study Report Number RADC-TR- 81-161 page count 94 June 1981 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. U A computer-based system has been created using 29 features of hand geometry to discriminate successfully 278 images of hands taken from 30 male and female subjects over a four-month period. These features include hand perimeter and area measures, finger lengths and widths, palm widths, and certain ratios of lengths and widths. A linear discriminant procedure was used to classify all images according to the subjects from which the images were taken. All images were correctly classified for 100% results.
- Hybrid System
Personal Identity Verification
Entry Control Shane, Dale C.
Shane, Scott C.
Nowak, Michael E.
Fare, Donna M. Hybrid Techniques Investigation Report number RADC-TR-84-60 page count 208 April 1984 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. U A Hybrid Techniques Investigation has been undertaken wherein a design of an electronic interface unit has been considered, capable of linking multiple Personal Identity Varifier (PIV) devices at an Entry Control Point with a Host computer. The Hybrid Interface Unit (HIU), acting as an element within an overall Entry Control System, controls the operation of the individual PIV's and other elements within the entry portal in response to orders from the host computer that certain levels of security be obtained as an operating condition for the portal and for the Base. The Hybrid Interface Unit selects the arrangement of, and the thresholds for, each of the PIV's as logical devices for each entrant in such a way that the full potential of the hybridization concept is realized. As identification errors are reduced and throughput is increased for the full range of the population.
In conjunction with HIU design, an Entry Control System architecture in the Host has been examined that utilizes distributed processing elements to meet the functional performance and timing requirements mandated by the hybrid design. The distributed processing within the Host is split among three individual functional groups, loosely joined with each other.
The Hybrid Interface Unit design, although it controls the operations within the portal directly, has been formulated to be a part of a feedback command/control loop including the analysis portion of the Enrollment Processor and the Security Command/control portion of the CB processor. the feedback allows the HIU's operating perameters to be controlled and upgraded over a selected time period, from the Host, as actual operating conditions become known in order to most readily apply the potential performance levels the hybridization concept is capable of providing.
In the formulated design resulting from the hybrid investigation, the HIU processes have been defined in an algorithm whose routines are held in an EPROM in the single board microprocessor which embodies the HIU. All data tables, PIV drivers, portal element drivers, communication drivers, command information and messages, as well as the HIU executive, are to be laid in either EPROM or RAM on the HIU board.
Operating characteristics required of, and available from the individual PIV's for proper operation within the Hybrid System have been defined as a result of a survey. Signal interface requirements have been indentified and have been determined to be within the vendor's capability to supply, for those PIV's selected as suitable for use with the concept.
The Hybrid Performance Algorithm has been formulated, that relates analysis of collected data to actual systems error performance over the entire Entry Control System, and computes the new parameters from the monitored data that permit the command security levels within the limits of hybrid performance to be achieved.
- identity verification
voice recognition Forsen, George E.
Nelson, Mark R., Dr.
Staron, Raymond J., Jr.
Personal Attributes Authentication Techniques Report Number RADC-TR-77-333 page count 326 October 1977 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. U The purpose of this research was to isolate physiological attributes which would be of utility in automatic identity verification for access control. The work proceeded in three stages. During the initial phase, over thirty potential physical attributes were evaluated through mathematical modeling, opinion survey, and system analysis. The two best attributes, handprints and a modified electrocardiogram we have called a "C-Trace", were selected for indepth study. Data on both attributes was collected on seventy-two at three sessions over three months during the second phase. In the third phase, the data was analyzed to determine the Type I and Type II error rates for identity verification. A Type I error is a failure to recognize a legitimate subject, whereas a Type II error occurs when an imposter is identified as a legitimate subject=2E Results were quite encouraging. The handprint achieved a Type I error of 1.4 percent and a Type II of 1.6 percent. The C-trace performed at at Type I of 1.2 percent and a Type II of 1.1 percent. Arguments which indicate that the handprint results can be improved significantly and the C-trace moderately are given.
- Speech processing
Secrest, Bruce G.
Helms, Ramon E. Remote Terminal Speaker Verification Report Number RADC-TR-77-169 page count 63 May 1977 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. U A study was conducted to develop a speaker verification system for use over a degraded channel such as a telephone line. A test of the current speaker verification technology was performed on a set of data which had been processed through the RADC Digital Communication Experiment Facility (DICEF) to simulate a telephone channel. The simulated channel introduced an amplitude distortion, phase delay, and noise onto the analog data set. The noise did not present any particular problem other than to raise the spectral errors of both the true speakers and the impostors, and the phase delay was also not a factor. The amplitude distortion was found to cause problem with time registrarion of the phrases and to result in an overall loss of information for speaker discrimination=2E To compensate the speaker verification system for these problems, a band-limited spectrum corresponding to the average band-pass characteristic of a telephone line was used for time registration, and the channel resistant pitch-period was added as an additional attribute for speaker discrimination. A limited experiment consisting of 16 speakers was conducted using the compersated speaker verification system. The results of the limited experiment were very encouraging in that a one percent true speaker rejection rate and a one percent impostor acceptance rate were obtained with a four phrase strategy. This exceeds the requirements of the Bass Installation and Security System (BISS) of a one percent true speaker rejection rate and a two percent impostor acceptance rate.
- Speaker Verification
Pattern Recognition Doddington, George R.
Hydrick, Barbara M. Speaker Verification II Report number RADC-TR-75-274 page count 107 November 1975 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. U The objective of this report, which covers further development of speaker verification technology, is the development of an operational capability for entry control via speaker verification. Practical techniques have been developed for adapting speech reference data, minimizing speaker reference storage requirements, and enrolling users. Experiments on the verification of speakers in free text were also conducted.
Speech analysis is based on a 16-channel filter bank representation spanning the frequencies from 300 to 3,000 Hz. Highly reliable time registration is achieved by continuously comparing the input data with reference matrices 0.1 second long. The representation of format frequencies is enhanced by spectrum flattening techniques.
Evaluation was performed using 40 male "true" speakers and 54 male "casual" imposters. Five different phrases were collected in each of 100 sessions over a period of 3 1/2 months. The first 50 sessions were used for training, the last 50 for test. Ususable data was obtained from 0.3 percent of the phrases. When this happened, a substitute phrase from that session was used. (A maximum of one substitution was allowed.)
All imposter acceptace rates were determined for 1 percent true speaker rejection. A single fixed threshold was used for all speakers. Impostor acceptance rates were 2.4 percent for one phrase, 0.1 percent for two phrases, 0.03 percent for three phrases and 0.01 percent for four phrases. Five percent of the true speaker data was labeled by the speakers as "not normal" because of respiratory ailments and other reasons. These data yielded a 2 percent rejection rate for one phrase.
A method of speaker verification using free text was also implemented and tested. This method involves establishing a set of commonly occurring reference speech segments for a true speaker. Verification is then based on the rate of occurence of similar segments in the input speech. Evaluation of this technique was performed over a 120-speaker data set, including 50 true speakers and 70 casual impostors. Ten sessions spaced over 10 weeks were collected from the true speakers. The first five sessions of each true speaker's data were used for training, the last five for test. Each session was 2 minutes long. Individual thresholds were chosen for each true speaker a posteriori to equalize the probability of Type I and Type II error. Average error rate for male speakers was 7 percent. Average error rate for female speakers was 6 percent.
Keystroke Dynamics ACT INC.
197 Johnson Ave., Meriden, CT 06450 Don Moseley (203) 634-4499 U Description: RYTHYM- A PROGRAM FOR MEASURING THE AMOUNT OF TIME A KEY IS DEPRESSED AND THE TIME BETWEEN KEYS.
Notes: USED TO CONTROL ACCESS TO A FILE ENCRYPTION PROGRAM ON A PC.
- Voice verification
VOICE Alpha Microsystems
3501 Sunflower Avenue, Santa Anna, CA 92715 Douglas Tullio (714) 957-8500 U Description: PRODUCT- VER-A-TEL VOICE VERIFICATION SYSTEM.
- Voice Verification Algorithms
Computers VOICE AT&T
COLUMBUS OHIO U Description: VOICE VERIFICATION ALGORITHMS ARE BEING DEVELOPED. PROBABLY WILL BE INTRODUCED AS A COMPONENT OF FUTURE AT&T COMPUTER SYSTEMS.
Autosig 3 System SIGNATURE AUTOSIG SYSTEMS, INC.
P.O. Box 165050, Irving, Texas 75016 Jerry Zvoneck (Pres.) (214) 258-8033 U Description: PRODUCT-AUTOSIG 3 SYSTEM
Notes: no additional information available
- signature SIGNATURE BEAR GROUP
SAN MATEO, CA U Description: Developing a low-cost signature dynamic system. Prototypes are scheduled for first quarter of 1992 and market entry for 1993. Target price of the system is under $500 per access point. -no current information available -
voice verification VOICE BELLCORE
MORRISTOWN, NJ U Description: Hold patents for the use of voice verification for protecting information in smart cards. Working on reducing false rejection rates.
- Veins VEIN BRITISH TECHNOLOGY GROUP
LONDON ENGLAND U Description: Seeking licenses for vein check which examines the pattern of veins on the back of the hand through a low-cost scanning technique.
- signatures SIGNATURE BRITISH TECHNOLOGY GROUP
LONDON ENGLAND U Description: Working on signature dynamics.
Voice Verification VOICE BRITISH TECHNOLOGY GROUP
LONDON ENGLAND U Description: Working on a voice verification scheme.
- DNA analysis Adams Validation of the FBI Procedure for DNA Analysis: A Summary Federal Bureau of Investigation Crime Laboratory Digest Special Report Issue: DNA Analysis: A Collection of Articles 1988-1991 U No summary available at this time.
- DNA analysis Adams, Presley Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Analysis by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms of Blood and Other Body Fluid Stains Subjected to Contamination and Enviromental Insults
Journal of Forensic Sciences 1284-1298 June 21, 1991 U No summary available at this time.
- DNA Fingerprinting
Adema DNA Fingerprinting Evidence: The Road to Admissibility in California San Diego Law Reveiw 26(2) 377-415 Mar-Apr 1989 U No summary available at this time.
- DNA testing Aldhous Congress Reveiws DNA Testing Nature 351 684 June 27, 1991 U No summary available at this time.
- Forensic Database Aldhous Challenge to British Forensic Database Nature 355 191 1992 U No summary available at this time.
- DNA test
Fingerprints Altman New DNA Test Offers Biological 'Finerprints' for Crime Fight New York Times Section C1 Feb. 4, 1986 U No summary available at this time.
- DNA Analysis American Society of Human Genetics, Ad Hoc Committee on DNA Technology DNA Banking and DNA Analysis: Points to Consider American Journal of Human Genetics 42 781-783 1988 U No summary available at this time.
DNA Analysis American Society of Human Genetics, Ad Hoc Committee on Individual Indentification by DNA Analysis Individual Identification by DNA Analysis: Points to Consider American Journal of Human Genetics 46(3) 631-634 1990 U No summary available at this time.
- Forensic Science
DNA Fingerprinting Anderson Forensic Science: DNA Fingerprinting Discord Nature 354 500 Dec 19/26, 1991 U No summary available at this time.
- Anderson Roche Cuts Controversial PCR Fees, Testing Limits Nature 355(6359) 379 Jan 30, 1992 U No summary available at this time.
- Anderson Conflict Concerns Disrupt Panels, Cloud Testimony Nature 355 753-754 Feb 27, 1992 U No summary available at this time.
- DNA fingerprinting Anderson DNA Fingerprinting: Academy Approves, Critics Still Cry Foul Nature 356(6370) 552 April 16, 1992 U No summary available at this time.
- DNA fingerprinting Annas DNA Fingerprinting: In the Twilight Zone Hastings Center Report 20 35-37 1990 U No summary available at this time.
- Gene banks
Privacy Annas Rules for 'Gene Banks': Protecting Privacy in the Genetics Age unknown unknown March 1992 U No summary available at this time.
- DNA results
Annas Setting Standards for the Use of DNA-Typing Results in the Courtroom -- The State of the Art New England Journal of Medicine 326(24) 1641-1644 June 11, 1992 U No summary available at this time.
- Anonymous Rapist Convicted on DNA Match New York Times 137 6 Feb 6,1988 U No summary is available at this time.
- genetic testing Anonymous Genetic Testing Fails to Prove a Rape Case New York Times 137 A14 April 8, 1988 U No summary is available at this time.
- Genetic Fingerprints Anonymous Caution on Genetic 'Fingerprints' Christian Science Monitor 81(186) 20 Aug 21, 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
- Anonymous First Conviction Based on DNA is Upheld New York Times 139 22 Sept. 24, 1989 U No summary available at this time.
- Genetic Identity Anonymous Genetic Identity Evidence Allowed for the First Time in a Federal Case New York Times September 23, 1990 U No summary available at this time.
- Anonymous Study of GeneticTests Backs DNA Evidence New York Times September 23, 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- DNA fingerprint
fetal tissue Anonymous Tissue of Aborted Fetus Tested for DNA 'Fingerprint' in Rape Case New York Times November 1, 1990 U No summary available at this time.
- DNA Analysis Anonymous Statement of the Working Group on Statistical Standards for DNA Analysis Federal Bureau of Investigation Crime Laboratory Digest Special Reprint Issue: DNA Analysis: A Collection of Articles 1988-1991 U No summary available at this time.
- Anonymous GeneScreen Is the Nation's Most Experienced DNA Lab. And you can take that to Court [advertisement] ABA Journal 75 Jan 1991 U No summary available at this time.
- Anonymous DNA Identifies Murder Victim Buried 8 Years Los Angeles Times 110 B3 Aug 5, 1991 U No summary available at this time.
- Anonymous Man Guilty of Rape on DNA Evidence Japan Times Weekly International Edition 9-15 2 March 1992 U No summary available at this time.
- Anonymous Genetics Traps a Bank Robber New York Times March 25, 1992 U No summary available at this time.
- Anonymous Genetics and the Public Interest Nature 356 365-366 April 2, 1992 U No summary available at this time.
- Anonymous Genetic Testing Closes An Inquiry on Mengele New York Times A6 April 9, 1992 U No summary available at this time.
- Anonymous New-Age Fingerprints Washington Post A22 April 17, 1992 U No summary available at this time.
- Anonymous DNA Tests Clear Man Imprisoned for 4 Years New York Times May 3, 1992 U No summary available at this time.
- Anonymous The Czar's Bones? Britons to Decide New York Times Sept. 13, 1992 U No summary available at this time.
- Anonymous Justice at Last: DNA Testing Frees Man from Prison New Mexican (Associated Press) B7 Dec 21, 1992 U No summary available at this time.
- Archer DNA Computer 'Breaches Human Rights' Press Association Newsfile Feb. 1, 1992 U No summary available at this time.
- Austad Forensic DNA Typing Science 255(5048) 1050 Feb. 28, 1992 U No summary available at this time.
- Baechtel A Primer on the Methods Used in the Typing of DNA Federal Bureau of Investigation
Crime Laboratory Digest Special Reprint Issue: DNA Analysis: A Collection of Articles 1988-1991 U No summary available at this time.
- Baird Quality Control and Quality Assurance In: Ballantyne, Sensabaugh et al., eds. DNA Technology and Forensic Science 175-183 1989 U No summary available at this time.
- Baird Analysis of Forensic DNA Samples by Single Locus VNTR Probes In: Farley, Harrington, eds. Forensic DNA Technology 25-38 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Barr The Use of DNA Typing in Criminal Prosecutions: A Flawless Partnership of Law and Science? New York School of Law Review 34 485-530 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
- Armed Forces Institute of Pathology
American Registry of Pathology DNA Databanks and Repositories
Seminar held in Bethesda, MD May 15-16, 1992 U No summary available at this time.
- Bashinski Managing the Implementation and Use of DNA Typing in the Crime Laboratory In: Farley, Harrington, eds. Forensic DNA Technology 201-236 1991 U No summary available at this time.
Pointing Fingers: DNA Identification Is Called into Question Scientific American 266(3) 14-15 March 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
Wiebe DNA Identification Tests and the Courts Washington Law Review 63 903-955 Oct. 1988 U No summary is available at this time.
- Bereano DNA Identification Systems: Social Policy and Civil Liberties Concerns International Journal of Bioethics 1 146 September 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Berry DNA Fingerprinting: What Does it Prove? Chance 3(3) 15 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
DeGuglielmo et al. Forensic DNA Typing Science 255(5048) 1051-1052 Feb. 28, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Bezak DNA Profiling Evidence: The Need for a Uniform and Workable Evidentiary Standard of Admissibility Valparaiso University Law Review 26 595-638 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Bingham State v. Horsley: The Idaho Court's First Look at DNA Printing as Evidence Idaho Law Reveiw 27(2) 393-408 1990-1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Bishop Reliability of DNA 'Fingerprinting' Challenged in New York Murder Case Wall Street Journal B4 May 22, 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
- Bishop Leaps of Science Create Quandaries on Evidence New York Times B6 April 6, 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Bishop A Victory for Genetic Fingerprinting New York Times Nov. 16, 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Blair Spencer v. Commonwealth and Recent Developments in the Admissibility of DNA Fingerprint Evidence Virginia Law Review 76(4) 853-876 May 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Blake Scientific and Legal Issues Raised by DNA Analysis In: Ballantyne, Sensabaugh et al., eds. DNA Technology and Forensic Science 109-115 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
- Blumenthal F.B.I. Joining Investigation of Mafia Killings in Sicily New York Times A2 Aug. 3, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- DNA fingerprinting Brannigan
Dockser et al.
DNA Fingerprinting Catches on in Courts Wall Street Journal B1 March 17, 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
- Brom Insurers and Genetic Testing: Shopping for that Perfect Pair of Genes Drake Law Review 40 121-148 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Brookfield DNA Profiling: Law and Probabilities Nature 355(6357) 207-208 Jan. 16, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Brown Biostatistics: High Reliability of 'DNA Fingerprints' Washington Post A2 Feb. 10, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Brown Leaders of American Effort to Map Human Genes Raise Privacy Issues Los Angeles Times A16 March 8, 1992 U No summary is available at this time=2E
Marshall, eds. Advances in Genetic Information: A Guide for State Policy Makers Lexington, Kentucky: The Council of State Governments 123 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Browne 40-Million-Year-Old Bee Yields Oldest Gene Matter New York Times A11 Sept. 25, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Brownlee Courtroom Genetics U.S. News & World Report Jan. 27, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Budowle Data for Forensic Matching Criteria for VNTR Profiles In: Proceedings for The International Symposium on Human Identification 1989: Data Acquisition and Statistical Analysis for DNA Laboratories Madison, WI: Promega Corporation 103-115 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Budowle The RFLP Technique Federal Bureau of Investigation Crime Laboratory Digest Special Reprint Issue: DNA Analysis: A Collection of Articles 1988-1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Budowle DNA Fingerprint Matches Science 256 1743-1744 June 26, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
Adams et al. Fragment-Length Polymorphisms for Forensic Science Applications In: Federal Bureau of Investigation, Laboratory Division, Methods in Nucleic Acids Research 181-202 U No summary is available at this time.
Baechtel et al. Validation with Regard to Enviromental Insults of the RFLP Procedure for Forensic Purposes In: Farley, Harrington, eds. Forensic DNA Technology 83-91 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
Deadman et al. An Introduction to the Methods of DNA Analysis under Investigation in the FBI Laboratory Crime Laboratory Digest 15(1) 8-21 Jan. 1988 U No summary is available at this time.
Deadman et al. An Introduction to the Methods of DNA Analysis Under Investigation in the FBI Laboratory Federal Bureau of Investigation Crime Laboratory Digest Special Reprint Issue: DNA Analysis: A Collection of Articles 1988-1991 U No summary is available at this time.
Monson et al. A Preliminary Report on Binned General Population Data on Six VNTR Loci in Caucasions, Black and Hispanics in the United States Crime Laboratory Digest 18(1) 9-25 Jan. 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
Monson A Statistical Approach for VNTR Analysis
In: Proceedings of An International Symposium on the Forensic Aspects of DNA Analysis Washington: Government Printing Office 121-126 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Burk DNA Fingerprinting: Possibilities and Pitfalls Revisited Jurimetrics Journal 28 455-471 Summer 1988 U No summary is available at this time.
- Burk DNA Identification: Possibilities and Pitfalls Revisited Jurimetrics Journal 31 53 Fall 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Byers DNA Fingerprinting and the Criminal Defendant: Guilty or Innocent? Only His Molecular Biologist Knows for Sure Ohio Northern University Law Review 16(1) 57-79 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
- Caplan Should Researchers Probe Abraham Lincoln's Genes? Physician's Weekly 8(35) Sept.16, 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
Hammond DNA-Based Identification: Disease and Criminals
In: Ballantyne, Sensabaugh et al., eds. DNA Technology and Forensic Science 127-135 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
- Cauchon In LIne for DNA Sampling USA Today Dec. 7, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Chakraborty Sample Size Requirements for Addressing the Population Genetic Issues of Forensic Use of DNA Typing Human Biology 64(2) 141-159 April 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
De Andrade et al. Apparent Heterozygote Deficiencies Observed in DNA Typing Data and Their Implications in Forensic Applications Annuals of Human Genetics 56(Pt.1) 45-57 Jan. 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
Kidd Forensic DNA Typing Science 255(5048) 1053-1054 Feb. 28, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Charles Genetique: tous en fiches (menaces sur la vie privee) L'Express (International Edition) (2123) 46-51 March 20, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Cleveland Forensic DNA Typing Science 255(5048) 1052 Feb. 28, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Coghlan Public Debate Grows Over Ethics of DNA Fingerprinting New Scientist 124(1686) 26 Oct. 14, 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
- Cohen DNA Fingerprinting: What (Really) Are the Odds? Chance 3(3) 26 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Coles Ethical Matters Nature 342 108 Nov. 9, 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
- Corney The Use of DNA Amplification in the Analysis of Forensic Evidence Federal Bureau of Investigation Crime Laboratory Digest Special Reprint Issue: DNA Analysis: A Collection of Articles 1988-1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Conneally DNA Forensics In: Rothstein, ed. Legal and Ethical Issues Raised by the Human Genome Project 334-336 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Cooper Virginia Upholds DNA Testing in Capital Murder Case National Law Journal 12(5) 6 Oct. 9, 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
Anderson, et al. Current Case Experience with Single-Locus Hypervariable Probes In: Ballantyne, Sensabaugh et al., eds.
DNA Technology and Forensic Science 191-202 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
- Council of Europe [Recommendations on genetic tests and screening for medical purposes and on the use of DNA analysis within the penal justice system] Strasbourg The Council 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Council of Europe Recommendation No. R (92) 1 du Comite des Ministres aux Etats membres sur l'utilisation des analyses de l'acide desoxyribonucleique (ADN) dans le cadre du systeme de justice penale International Journal of Bioethics 3(3) 173-175 Sept. 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
Poklemba DNA: Report of the New York State Forensic DNA Analysis Panel 68 Sept. 6, 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
Brookfield Interpreting DNA Fingerprints Nature 356(6369) 483 April 9, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
Novelli PCR DNA Typing for Forensics Nature 354 179 Nov. 21, 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Davidson Study Supports Use in Courts of DNA Tests Wall Street Journal B1, B4 April 15, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Debenham The Use of Genetic Markers for Personal Identification and the Analysis of Family Relationships In: Chadwick, Bock et al., eds. Human Genetic Information: Science, Law and Ethics 37-43 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- DiRusso DNA 'Profiles' -- The Problems of Technology Transfer Mercer Law Review 41 1453-1489 Fall 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Donovan Lock-Up to Limbo: Court OKs DNA Test National Law Journal 8 July 29, 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Doot The Secrets of the Genome Revealed: Threats to Genetic Privacy Wayne Law Review 37 1615-1645 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Dougherty Beyond People v. Castro: A New Standard of Admissibility for DNA, Fingerprinting Journal of Contemporary Health Law & Policy 7 269-306 Spring 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Duggan Case Woven of DNA Thread: New Tool to be Used in Md. Slaying Trial Washington Post A 10 Jan. 17, 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
- Edgar DNA Forensics In: Rothstein, ed. Legal and Ethical Issues Raised by the Human Genome Project 328-333 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Ellinger DNA Diagnostic Technology: Probing the Problem of Causation in Toxic Torts Harvard Journal of Law & Technology 3 31-73 Spring 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Eubanks FBI Laboratory Evidence Examination Policy Federal Bureau of Investigation Crime Laboratory Digest Special Reprint Issue: DNA Analysis: A Collection of Articles 1988-1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Ewing Conn. Jury Disregards DNA Test National Law Journal April 23, 1990 U No summary is available at this time=2E
- Farley Forensic DNA Technology Harrington, eds. 250 1991 Lewis Publishers Chelsea, Michigan U No summary is available at this time.
Goodfellow DNA Fingerprinting: New Variations on the Theme Nature 354 184 November 21, 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Federal Bureau of Investigation An International Symposium on the Forensic Aspects of DNA Analysis Quantico, VA Department of Justice 46 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
- Federal Bureau of Investigation
DNA Legal Assistance Unit Forensic DNA Cases and Statutes Washington DNALAU 6 Dec. 10, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Foderaro DNA Frees Convicted Rapist After 9 Years Behind Bars New York Times A 16 Aug. 1, 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Franklin-Barbajosa DNA Profiling: The New Science to Indentity National Geographic 181(5) 112-124 May 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Fried Prosecutors Try to Use DNA Evidence in Rape New York Times B3 Sept. 30, 1988 U No summary is available at this time.
- Garfinkel The Jury Is Out on DNA Identity Tests Christian Science Monitor 12 March 27, 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Garfinkel Identifying Criminal Suspects by Genetic Samples Privacy Journal April 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Gellman DNA Test Clears Man Convicted of SE Rape; Move Keeps Findings Out of Court Washington Post A 12 March 20, 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Giannelli Criminal Discovery, Scientific Evidence, and DNA Vanderbilt Law Review 44(4) 791-825 May 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Gibbons Forensic Medicine: Scientists Search for 'The Disappeared' in Guatemala Science 257 479 July 24, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Gibbons Molecular Anthropology: Genetics Trace the DNA Trail of the First Americans Science 259 312-313 Jan. 15, 1993 U No summary is available at this time.
Issel-Tarver et al. Identifying Individuals by Sequencing mtDNA from Teeth Nature Genetics 2 135-138 U No summary is available at this time.
- Gladwell DNA Prints: New Way to Finger Criminals; Cellmark Diagnostics Pioneers Technology with Vast Applications Washington Post 111 WB6 Sept. 19, 1988 U No summary is available at this time.
- Goldberg A New Day for DNA? Despite Widespread Acceptance, Admissibility Standards Vary ABA Journal 78 84-85 April 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Gorman DNA Can Be Used As Evidence, Court Says Los Angeles Times 110 A3 Oct. 30, 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Gorner Lincoln's Gene May Help Reshape History Chicago Tribune 21 Feb. 17, 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Green Population Genetic Issues in DNA Fingerprinting American Journal of Human Genetics 50(2) 440-443 Feb. 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Griffith DNA Evidence Allowed in Va. Murder Trial Washington Post D1, D11 July 19, 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Grover A New Twist in the Double Helix: Admissibility of DNA 'Fingerprinting' in California Computer & High Technology Law Journal 2 469-496 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
Pearl Blood Testing, AIDS and DNA Profiling: Law and Policy Bristol, UK 1990 Jordan & Sons U No summary is available at this time.
- Hager DNA on Trial as Evidence Los Angeles Times 110 A1 March 27, 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Hager High Court OKs DNA As Evidence Los Angeles Times 111 A3 Jan. 31, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Hamilton Woman Guilty of Murder in State's First Case Based on Genetic Evidence Los Angeles Times 108 3 Sept. 14, 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
- Hamilton, ed. Letting the 'Cops' Make the Rules for DNA Fingerprints Science 252 1603 June 21, 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Harmon The Frye Test: Considerations for DNA Identification Techniques In: Ballantyne, Sensabaugh et al., eds. DNA Technology and Forensic Science 89-94 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
- Harmon General Admissibility Considerations for DNA Typing Evidence: Let's Learn from the Past and Let the Scientists Decide This Time Around In: Farley. Harrington, eds. Forensic DNA Technology 153-180 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Hayes DNA Fingerprinting Called Privacy Threat Wall Street Journal B1 Feb. 6, 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Hendricks Some Scientists Beginning to Question DNA Fingerprinting Privacy Times Feb. 14, 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Herman Cataloging the Human Genome Washington Post z13 June 16,1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Hicks DNA Profiling: A Tool for Law Enforcement FBI Law Inforcement Bulletin (Reprint) 5 Aug. 1988 U No summary is available at this time.
- Hicks Joint Hearing on Forensic DNA Analysis, Before the House Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights and the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on the Constitution In: U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, FBI Laboratory Research: DNA 30 June 13, 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Hicks Report Affirms the Value of DNA Testing National Law Journal 14(39) 18 June 1, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Hicks FBI's Case for Genetics Nature 357 355 June 4, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
Blake Applications of the Polymerase Chain Reaction in Forensic Science In: Ballantyne, Sensabaugh et al., eds. DNA Technology and Forensic Science 265-277 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
- Hockstader DNA 'Fingerprinting' Inconclusive in Scott Trial Washington Post A11 Feb. 16, 1988 U No summary is available at this time.
- Hoeffel The Dark Side of DNA Profiling: Unreliable Scientific Evidence Meets the Criminal Defendant Stanford Law Review 42 465-538 Jan. 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Hoke DNA Tests in Criminal Prosecutions: Too Much Evidence or Not Enough? Journal of Legal Medicine 11 481-512 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Holden Mengele's DNA Science 255 801 Feb. 14, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Hooper DNA Identification Method Developed That May Spur Fewer Disputes in Court Wall Street Journal B3 Nov. 21, 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Howard Judge Admits DNA Profiling As Evidence in D.C. Paternity Suit Washington Post B1, B7 Oct. 30, 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Hunt DNA Used to Identify Murder Victim; Technique May Be Helpful in Probeof Milwaukee Slayings Washington Post A14 Aug. 2, 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Hupe The Development of DNA Fingerprint Use in Courts of Law Southwestern University Law Review 19(3) 1045-1065 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Hurrell Criminals Would Go onto World Blacklist Times May 8, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Hymer DNA Testing in Criminal Cases: A Defense Perspective In: Farley, Harrington, eds. Forensic DNA Technology 181-200 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Imbert Tests Genetiques et droits de l'Homme International Journal of Bioethics 3(2) 158-169 Sept. 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Imwinkelried The Debate in the DNA Cases Over the Foundation for the Admission of Scientific Evidence: The Importance of Human Error As a Cause of Forensic Misanalysis Washington University Law Quarterly 69(1) 19-47 Spring 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
DNA Fingerprints: When the Proof Is in the Genes Christian Science Journal 3 April 12, 1988 U No summary is available at this time.
Man Tied to Rape by DNA Test Is Convicted New York Times 111 A3 Oct. 20, 1988 U No summary is available at this time.
- Jaroff Seeking a Godlike Power: Genetic Science Promises to Deliver the Blueprint for Human Life Time 140(27) 58 Fall 1992 (Special Issue) U No summary is available at this time.
- Jasanoff What Judges Should Know about Sociology of Science Jurimetrics Journal 32(3) 345-359 Spring 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
Wilson et al. Individual-Specific 'Fingerprints' of Human DNA Nature 316 76-79 July 4, 1985 U No summary is available at this time.
Wong et al. Applications of Multilocus and Single-Locus Minisatellite DNA Probes in Forensic Medicine In: Ballantyne, Sensabaugh et al., eds. DNA Technology and Forensic Science 283-294 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
- Johnson DNA 'Fingerprinting' Tests Becoming a Factor in Courts New York Times 137 1 Feb. 7, 1988 U No summary is available at this time.
- Jonakait Will Blood Tell? Genetic Markers in Criminal Cases Emory Law Journal 31(4) 833-912 Fall 1982 U Yesley LANL 667-3766
according to 1991 directoryN No summary is available at this time.
- Joyce High Profile: DNA in Court Again New Scientist 24(1726) 24-25 July 21, 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
Stover DNA Testing Enlisted to Exorcise Ghost of Mengele New Scientist 123(1683) 22 Sept. 23, 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
- Kainz DNA Technology: It's Quickly Becoming One of Science's Key Witnesses in the Criminal Justice System Ottawa Citizen E3 Oct. 13, 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Kaye The Probability of an Ultimate Issue: The Strange Cases of Paternity Testing Iowa Law Review 75(1) 75-109 Oct. 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
- Kaye Presumptions, Probability and Paternity Jurimetrics Journal 30 323 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Kaye DNA Paternity Probabilities Family Law Quarterly 24(3) 279-304 Fall 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
Kanwischer Admissibility of Genetic Testing in Paternity Litigation: A Survey of State Statues Family Law Quarterly 22(2) 109-116 Summer 1988 U No summary is available at this time.
- Keehn The Long Arm of the Gene American Way 36-40 March 15, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Kerr DNA Tests for All Men Being Considered Daily Telegraph 8 March 29, 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- King Genetic Testing of Identity and Relationship American Journal of Human Genetics 44 179-181 1989 U No summary is available at this time=2E
- King An Application of DNA Sequencing to a Human Rights Problem In: Friedmann, ed. Molecular Genetic Medicine 117-131 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- King New York Needs DNA Crime Data Base New York Times A14 May 29, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Kolata Some Scientists Doubt the Value of 'Genetic Fingerprint' Evidence New York Times A1 Jan. 29, 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Kolata Gene Test Barred as Proof in Court New York Times Feb. 14, 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Kolata Justice System Takes a Hard Second Look at Scientific Evidence New York Times E6 Feb. 24, 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Kolata Critic of 'Genetic Fingerprint' Testing Tells of Pressure to Withdraw Paper New York Times A16 Dec. 20, 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Kolata F.B.I. Defends Genetic Tests New York Times 8 Dec. 25, 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Kolata DNA Analysis Reliable, Study Finds New York Times Feb. 7, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Kolata U.S. Panel Seeking Restriction on Use of DNA in Courts New York Times A1, A6 April 14, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Kolata Chief Says Panel Backs Courts' Use of Genetic Test--Times Account in Error New York Times A1, A19 April 15, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Kolata DNA Fingerprinting: Built-In Conflict New York Times A13 April 17, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Koshland Forensic DNA Typing Science 255(5048) 1052-1053 Feb. 28, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Koshland DNA Fingerprinting and Eyewitness Testimony Science 256 593 May 1, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Krajick Genetics in the Courtroom; Controversial DNA Testing Can Clear a Suspect Newsweek 64 Jan. 11, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Labaton DNA Fingerprinting Is Facing Showdown at an Ohio Hearing New York Times 139 A1 June 22, 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Lander Population Genetic Considerations in the Forensic Use of DNA Typing In: Ballantyne, Sensabaugh et al., eds. DNA Technology and Forensic Science 143-153 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
- Lander FBI DNA Fingerprinting Government Printing Office March 22, 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
- Lander DNA Fingerprinting on Trial Nature 339 501-505 June 15, 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
- Lander DNA Fingerprinting: Science, Law, and the Ultimate Identifier In: Kevles, Hood, eds. The Code of Codes 191-210 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Lattin Secret Files on Americans' Genes San Franciso Chronicle 1 Feb. 17, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Lawson DNA Fingerprinting and Its Impact Upon Criminal Law Mercer Law Review 41 1453-1468 Summer 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Leary Study Back DNA Test's Use In Law Enforcement New York Times 139 13 Aug. 5, 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Leary Panel Backs DNA Tests on Lincoln's Tissue New York Times May 3, 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Leary Genetic Record to Be Kept on Members of Military New York Times 141 12 Jan. 12, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Leary Committee Urges Delay in Cloning Lincoln's Genes New York Times A12 April 16, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Lempert Some Caveats Concerning DNA as Criminal Identification Evidence: With Thanks to the Reverend Bayes Cardozo Law Review 341 303-341 1991 U No summary is available at this time.
- Lerner DNA Prints Help Win Conviction in 2 Rapes Los Angeles Times B1 March 16, 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Wilson, Thomas F.
Woodard, Paul L. Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems: Technology and Policy Issues Search Group: Bureau of Justice Statistics 87-107 April 1987 Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1987, U.S. Dept. of Justice, Washington U No summary is available at this time.
- Carroll D. Buracher
William K. Stover Automated Fingerprint Identification: Required Application of Technology Reprinted for the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 5 pages July 1984 FBI, Washington, Dept. of Justice, 1984 U No summary is available at this time.
- Wegstein, J.H.
An Automated Fingerprint Identification System Feb. 1982 NBS, US Dept. of Commerce Feb. 1982 U No summary is available at this time.
- Menzel, Ronald E. Fingerprint Detection with Lasers 1980 Dekker, NY U No summary is available at this time.
- Lorne T. Kirby DNA Fingerprinting: An Introduction 1990 NY, NY, 1990, Stockton Press U No summary is available at this time.
- National Research Council
Committee on DNA Technology in Forensic
Science DNA Technology in Forensic Science 1992 Washington, D.C=2E, National Academy Press, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Levy DNA Evidence in Criminal Cases: Legal Developments New York Law Journal 1-___. April 25, 1990 U No summary is available at this time.
- Lewin DNA Fingerprints in Health and Disease Science 233 521-522 Aug. 1986 U No summary is available at this time.
- Lewin DNA Typing on the Witness Stand Science 244 1033-1035 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
- Longobardi DNA Fingerprinting and the Need for a National Data Base Fordham Urban Law Journal 17 323-357 Sep-Oct 1989 U No summary is available at this time.
Hartl Forensic DNA Typing Science 255(5048) 1054-1055 Feb. 28, 1992 U No summary is available at this time.
- Lyall DNA Tests Link Golub to Killing, Expert Says New York Times B4 March 8, 1990 U
- Malcolm FBI Opening Door to Wide Use of Genetic Tests in Solving Crimes New York Times 138 A1 June 12, 1989 U
- Marcotte Report: DNA Tests Valid. But OTA Says Standards, Quality Assurance Needed ABA Journal Oct. 26, 1990 U
- Marshall Killer, Caught by New Technique, Gets Life Term Los Angeles Times 107 3 Jan. 23, 1988 U
- Marshall The Impact of Advances in Genetics on Civil Liberties and Criminal Justice In: Brown, Marshall, eds. Advances in Genetic Information: A Guide for State Policy Makers 81-97 1992 U
- Marx DNA Fingerprinting Takes the Witness Stand Science 240 1616-1618 June 1988 U
- Marx DNA 'Fingerprints' May One Day Be Our National Identity Card Wall Street Journal A14 April 20, 1989 U
- privacy Marx Now the Techno-Snoopers Want to Get Into Our Genes Los Angeles Times 7 Sept. 15, 1989 U
- DNA fingerprinting
forensics Maugh Genetic Fingerprinting Joins Crime War Los Angeles Times 3 Jan. 7, 1988 U
- McCabe Utility of PCR for DNA Analysis from Dried Blood Spots on Filter Paper Blotters PCR Methods and Applications 1 99-106 1991 U
- McCabe Applications of DNA Fingerprinting in Pediatric Practice Journal of Pediatrics 120(4) 499-509 April 1992 U
McCarty et al. A Survey of State Insurance Commissioners Concerning Genetic Testing and Life Insurance American Journal of Human Genetics 51 785-792 1992 U
Reilly State Legislative Efforts to Regulate Use and Potential Misuse of Genetic Information American Journal of Human Genetics 51(3) 637-647 Sept. 1992 U
- McFadden New York Judges Ruling Challenges Reliability of DNA Tests New York Times 138 A16 Aug. 15, 1989 U
- McGourty New York State Leads on Genetic Fingerprinting Nature 341 90 Sept. 14, 1989 U
- Michaud DNA Detectives: Genetic 'Fingerprinting' May Herald a Revolution in Law Enforcement New York Times Magazine 138 70 Nov. 6, 1988 U
- Miller The Outlook for Forensic DNA Testing in the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation Crime Laboratory Digest Special Reprint Issue: DNA Analysis: A Collection of Articles 1988-1991 U
- Miller The FBI's Forensic DNA Analysis Program FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 11-15
July 1991 U
- Moenssens DNA Evidence and Its Critics - How Valid Are the Challenges? Jurimetrics Journal 31 87-108 1990 U
- Moffat Plan for DNA Database Assailed Los Angeles Times 111 A5 Jan. 16, 1992 U
- Moffat DNA Use a Shot in Arm for Biotech Los Angeles Times 111 D1 Jan. 18, 1992 U
- Moody DNA Analysis in Forensic Science: Genetic Tools for the Solution of Violent Crimes Bioscience 39(1) 31-36 Jan. 1989 U
- Morton Genetic Structure of Forensic Populations Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 89(7) 2556-2560 April 1, 1992 U
- Motulsky Societal Problems of Forensic Use of DNA Technology In: Ballantyne, Sensabaugh et al., eds. DNA Technology and Forensic Science 3-9 1989 U
- Mudd Guidelines for a Quality Assurance Program for DNA RFLP Analysis Crime Laboratory Digest 16(2) 40-59 Apr-Jul 1989 U
- Mueller Population Genetics of Hypervariable Human DNA In: Farley, Harrington, eds. Forensic DNA Technology 51-62 1991 U
- Naik Police Like Genetic Data Banks, But Critics Question Validity Wall Street Journal B1, B8 July 28, 1992 U
- Nash Ultimate Gene Machine Time Aug. 12, 1991 U
- National Research Council
Committee on DNA Technology in Forensic
DNA Technology in Forensic Science 185 1992 Washington: National Academy Press U
Alper Genetic Screening: Triumphs, Problems, and Controversies Journal of Public Health Policy 12(4) 475-491 Winter 1991 U
- Neufeld Admissibility of New or Novel Scientific Evidence in Criminal Cases In: Ballantyne, Sensabaugh et al., eds. DNA Technology and Forensic Science 73-82 1989 U
Colman When Science Takes the Witness Stand Scientific American 262(5) 46-53 May 1990 U
- New Mexico Court of Appeals New Mexico v. Anderson No. 12,899 Dec. 14, 1992 U
- Nishimi Forensic Uses of DNA Tests Journal of the American Medical Association 264(20) 2616 Nov. 28, 1990 U
- Nishimi DNA Fingerprinting In: Rothstein, ed. Legal and Ethical Issues Raised by the Human Genome Project 296-327 1991 U
- Norman Caution Urged on DNA Fingerprinting Science 245 699 Aug. 18, 1989 U
- Norman Maine Case Deals Blow to DNA Fingerprinting Science 246 1556-1558 Dec. 1989 U
- Norman DNA Fingerprinting: Is It Ready for Trial? University of Miami Law Review 45 243 Sept=2E 1990 U
White Tandemly Repeated DNA and Its Application in Forensic Biology In: Ballantyne, Sensabaugh et al., eds. DNA Technology and Forensic Science 257-261 1989 U
Ciesielski et al. Molecular Epidemiology of HIV Transmission in a Dental Practice Science 256 1165-1171 May 22, 1992 U
- Palca AIDS: CDC Closes the Case of the Florida Dentist Science 256 1130-1131 May 22, 1992 U
- Pearsall DNA Printing: The Unexamined 'Witness' in Criminal Trials California Law Review 77 665-703 March 1989 U
- Peterson Impact of Biological Evidence on the Adjudication of Criminal Cases: Potential for DNA Technology In: Ballantyne, Sensabaugh et al. DNA Technology and Forensic Science 55-68 1989 U
- Petrosinelli The Admissibility of DNA Typing: A New Methodology Georgetown Law Journal 79 313-336 Dec. 1990 U
- Petrovich DNA Typing: A Rush to Judgement Georgia Law Review 24 669-704 1990 U
- Privacy Commissioner of Canada Genetic Testing and Privacy Canada: Ministry of Supply and Services 241 1992 U
Colvin DNA Test Links Couple, Dead Baby Los Angeles Times 110 B1 June 26, 1991 U
- Raab Cuomo Seeks Genetic Data of Offenders New York Times A27 May 10, 1992 U
- Raab Cuomo Proposal Would Create Registry of Offenders DNA Data New York Times A13 May 12, 1992 U
- Rabinow Galton's Regret: Biosocial Techniques of Identification University of California at Berkeley, Department of Anthropology 39 [undated] U
- Reilly Reflections on the Use of DNA Forensic Science and Privacy Issues In: Ballantyne, Sensabaugh, et al., eds. DNA Technology and Forensic Science 43-53 1989 U
- Reilly DNA Banking American Journal of Human Genetics 51 1169-1170 1992 U
- Reinhold California Urged to Take Lead in Genetic Tracking of Crime New York Times Sec. 1 1(1) April 8, 1989 U
- Rensberger DNA 'Fingerprinting' Is Disputed: Scientists Debate Reliability of Identification in Criminal Cases Washington Post 115 A3 Dec. 20, 1991 U
- Rensberger FBI Chief Backs DNA 'Fingerprinting': Sessions Issues Statements Following Scientists' Doubt Accuracy Washington Post 115 A17 Dec. 25, 1991 U
- Renskers Trail by Certainty: Implications of Genetic 'DNA Fingerprints' Emory Law Journal 39 309-346 Winter 1990 U
- Richards DNA Fingerprinting and Paternity Testing University of California, Davis Law Review 22 609-651 1989 U
Devlin On the Probability of Matching DNA Fingerprints Science 255(5045) 717-720 Feb. 7, 1992 U
Devlin DNA Fingerprint Matches Science 256 1743-1744 June 26, 1992 U
- Rivera Laura Bradbury Death Shown by DNA Evidence Los Angeles Times 110 A3 Dec. 16, 1990 U
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- Roberts Science in Court: A Culture Clash Science 257 732-736 Aug. 7, 1992 U
Keith Standardization of Systems: Essential or Desirable? In: Ballantyne, Sensabaugh et al., eds. DNA Technology and Forensic Science 319-324 1989 U
- Schmeck Scientists Clone Bits of Genes Taken from Extinct Animal New York Times A1 June 5, 1984 U
- Schmeck Intact Genetic Material Extracted from an Ancient Egyptian Mummy New York Times C1 April 16, 1985 U
- Schmeck DNA Fragments Extracted from Mummy Infant are Reported Almost Undamaged New York Times B11 April 18, 1985 U
- Schmeck Scientist Identifies Ancestor to all Life Forms New York Times A24 Jan. 14, 1988 U
- Schmeck DNA and Crime: Identification from a Single Hair New York Times 80(95) C3 April 12, 1988 U
- Schmeck New Test that Finds Hidden AIDS Virus in Sleuth with Value in Many Fields New York Times 137 C1 June 21, 1988 U
- Schmeck DNA Findings Are Disputed by Scientists New York Times B1, B12 May 25, 1989 U
- Schmeck DNA Evidence Faulted in A Bronx Murder Case New York Times 138 A17 May 5, 1989 U
- Schmeck Standards Urged for Genetic 'Fingerprinting' New York Times 138 A26 June 15, 1989 U
Crocker DNA Typing: Novel Scientific Evidence in the Military Courts Air Force Law Review 227-324 1990 U
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Weinberg DNA Data Banking: The Dangerous Erosion of Privacy Cleveland State Law Review 38(3) 455-486 1990 U
- Sheard DNA Profiling and the Police Nature 355(6362) 667 Feb. 20, 1992 U
- Sherman DNA Tests Unravel? National Law Journal 12(15) 1, 24-25 Dec. 18, 1989 U
- Sherman Study Endorses DNA Evidence Nationl Law Review 3, 12 Aug. 13, 1990 U
- Sherman DNA Is on Trial Yet Again: The Battle Gets Nastier and the Stakes, Higher National Law Journal 1 March 16, 1992 U
- Sherman Genetic Testing Criticized National Law Journal 1, 45-46 April 20, 1992 U
- Sherman DNA Typing: NAS's Final Report Is Released National Law Journal 14(34) 3 April 27, 1992 U
- Simon DNA Fingerprinting: A New Technological Weapon in Fighting Crime Congressional Record 135 S1606-01 Feb. 22, 1989 U
- Simon DNA Identification Act of 1991 S. 1355. Bill Introduced 1991 June 21. Congressional Record 137 S8459-01 June 21, 1991 U
Hamilton et al.
Collaring Criminals with DNA 'Fingerprints" Buisness Week U
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- Stafford Massachusetts Rejects Use of Population Statistics Federal Bureau of Investigation Crime Laboratory Digest Special Reprint Issue: DNA Analysis: A Collection of Articles 1988-1991 U
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- Technical Working Group on DNA Analysis
Methods (TWGDAM) and California
Association of Criminalists Ad Hoc
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Federal Bureau of Investigation DNA Analysis: A Collection of Articles 1988-1991 Crime Laboratory Digest Special Reprint Issue 15-18 75 p. 1991 U
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Phase: Development Communication Intelligence Corp
275 Shoreline Drive, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 Debbie Nelson Phone: (415) 802-7888 Fax: (415) 802-7777 U Tracks the velocity and acceleration of signatures using an electronic pad and any writing implement. Working with pen-based computing.
Notes: User indentification, system access, written data entry
- Signature Confirma Technology
Menlo Park, CA U Refined sygnature dynamics and research since early 1980's. A wired pen approach is used in the prototypes.
- VOICE Defender
Northern Ireland U Used in several applications in Europe and South Africa.
- Fingerprint Denistron
Torrence, CA U Have worldwide distribution rights to fingerprint verification technology. Approximately the size of an external disk drive. Contains optical sensor, electronics and a slot for an active memory card which holds the 24K-bit template.
- Fingerprint Digital Biometrics
Eden Prairie, MN U Supplies live-scan fingerprint capture equipment.
Phase: Production Digital Signatures, Inc.
9050 Red Branch Road, Columbia, MD 21045-2174 Rod Beatson Phone: (410) 740-0575 Fax: (410) 730-8261 U SIGN/ON: SIGNATURE CAPTURE AND VERIFICATION SYSTEM. MEASURES AUTOMATIC REFLEX ACTION OF THE SIGNING PROCESS AND COMPARES IT WITH A STORED TEMPLATE. RS485, RS232C, MAG STRIPE, SMART CARD INTERFACES. COOPERATING WITH IBM AND SIEMENS NIXDORF.
PHASE: PRE-PRODUCTION E-METRICS, INC.
3633 E. INLAND EMPERIAL. BLVD, ONTARIO, CA 91674-4922 WILLIAM B. FORTI PHONE: (714) 483-2507 FAX: (714) 483-2547 U NEURAL NETWORK-LIKE FACIAL IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM. WILL BEGIN DEMONSTRATION ITS TECHNOLOGY IN SUMMER 92.
NOTES: ACCESS CONTROL APPLICATIONS
- LIFE PRINT DETECTOR
PHASE: DEVELOPMENT ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE LOCK
PO BOX 10851, EUGENE, OR 97440 JOHN DAVID GARCIA PHONE: (503) 937-3437 FAX: (503) 937-2314 U VLPD - IDENTIFIES A PERSON UNIQUELY WITHOUT TOUCHING, SEEING, OR HEARING IN A PASSIVE, UNOBTRUSIVE MANNER. "AURA" DETECTION.??
NOTES: APPLICATIONS INCLUDE: PHYSICAL ACCESS CONTROL, COMPUTER/NETWORK ACCESS CONTROL, PASSIVE LIE DETECTION/STRESS SENSOR
PHASE: LISCENSES AVAILABLE ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE LOCK
PO BOX 10851, EUGENE, OR 97440
JOHN DAVID GARCIA PHONE: (503) 937-3437 FAX: (503) 937-2314 U ESL- hardware/fimaware/software implemented technology used to identify local or remote users keyboard entry timing patterns. CESL- similar to ESL except that it can continuously monitor the user instead of a one time check.
Notes: applications include: physical access control, computer/network access control Runs on PC's (DOS 3.3 and lower) and OS 2. Developing UNIX versions. Spoke w/ Mr. Garcia (22 Jul 92) Reliability experiments done at University of California. Reliability depended on amount of time alotted to the process. Claimed reliability was 1 in 10x5 to 1 in 10x6=2E Can be custom engineered to specific enviroments.
Phase: Production Electronic Warfare Assoc., Inc.
2071 Chain Bridge Road, Vienna, VA 22182 Richard B. Friedel Phone: (703) 893-4820 Fax: (703) 893-5761 U Specializes in DOD and intelligence community systems. Developed a board-level DOS compatible product called the identivoice-2000. Capable of speaker recognition, language recognition and speaker verification. Product- Identivioce 2000
Notes: Spoke w/ Jesse Cox (22 Jul 92).
* less than or equal to 10 second verification time
* lengthy learning process
* they are willing to demo at their location with 1-2 day advance notice w/ clearances.
- Voice Ensigma
England U Specializes in speech and signal processing. Voice verification technology developed in house and provided on a PC board or through licensing. Template size is 1K bytes.
Phase: Prototype Eye-D
Fairfield, CT U Identifies individuals on the pattern of the Iris. The system recognizes people based on their pupil and then verifies based on the iris pattern. The scan can be taken at a distance B/C it looks at surface features.
Notes: No current information available.
Phase: Production Eyedentify, Inc.
1800 NW Place Suite B-900, Beaverton, OR 97006 Louise Lawson Phone: (503) 645-6666 Fax: (503) 645-0567 U Focuses on custom integrated systems using its retinal scan equipment. The only commercially available biometric able to recognize a user in a database of enrolled templates. Several hundred units are already in service. Product: IBEX 90
Phase: Pre-Production Fingermatrix Ihc.
30 Virginia Road, North White Plains, NY 10603 Jim Nolles Phone: (914) 428-5441 U Fingerprint sensor technology Products- Fingerscan 10, Ridgereader Mint, Mini-Afis, Veridex, Video Mint.
- Signature IBM
Charlotte, NC U A signature dynamic pen. They use smart cards to carry the user's template and perform other security functions. The signature device, a wired pen which can be used on any surface, is employed in custom systems.
- Fingerprint Indenticator
San Bruno, CA U Direct fingerprint reader. The unit employs a fiber optic bundle and CCD array to capture distortion free print images.
- Fingerprint Indentification Systems
Wheatridge, CO U ISC has rights to fingerprint captures and verification algorithm technology developed in academia. Seeking partners to develop prototypes.
- Fingerprint Identity Systems Int., Inc.
9650 20th Ave. Suite 104, Edmonton Alberta T6N 1G1 John Wright Phone: (403) 450-6363 U PAS2000 Fingerprint-based access control system. Fingerprint template stored on Toshiba smart card.
Notes: More information coming soon.
Phase: Production Identix
510 N. Pastoria Ave., Sunnyvale, CA 94806 Wayne Davis Phone: (408) 739-2000 Fax: (408) 739-3308 U Touchsafe: Fingerprint scanner and processor card. Two versions-external model: Processor and scanner self-contained INA desktop Module, Internal model: Processor on PC compatible card. Networked access control available in oem configurations.
Notes: Data and transaction control. Also available is "Touchsafe", a similar device targeted to physical access control.
- Technology Type: Unknown
Phase: Patent- pending Information Security, Inc.
001 Spring St. Suite 123, Silver Spring, MD 2091 Noel D. Matchett (Pres.) Phone: (301) 565-8168 U Continuous biometric authentication matrix (CBAM)
- Keystroke International Biometric System, Inc.
14591 Grand Avenue S., Burnsville, MN 55337 Kenneth Brinkman Phone: (612) 892-5655 Fax: (612) 892-6239 U Keystroke dynamics analysis access control to IBM PCs. Includes a half-size add-on board.
- Voice International Electronics
Canton, MA U Supplier of the voicekey biometric product in 1990. They have redesigned the product to correct problems that had resulted in high false rejection rate in the original machine. Smaller, cheaper unit is under development.
- Signature NCR Corp.
Dayton, OH U Held patents on signature dynamics for 10 years. Have launched the NCR3125 Notepad computer which uses signature dynamics for access control. Sensitive screen accepts commands entered with a special pen.
- Fingerprint NET-ID
Palo Alto, CA U Fingerprint verification based on neural networks. Use parallel processing and pattern learning techniques. 75 bytes for print features.
- Facial Neurometric Vision System
Pompano Beasch, FL U Neural network based facial pattern recognition system.
Amherst, NY U Uses high frequency ultrasound as opposed to light for the capture of fingerprint images. Potential for ultra low-cost image capture components.
Phase: Production Oscan Electro-Optics Inc.
466 Tremblay Road, Ottawa, Ontario Canada K1G 3R1 Phone: (613) 845-4600 Fax: (613) 745-7953 U Electro-Optical scanner of the finger's pattern. Uses a one-to-one mapping of a gray-scale pixel to binary pixel. 1 in x 1 in. approximate file size of 300 bytes. Scanning speed of 1.5 sec matching speed of 4.5 sec. Standard Interfaces.
Notes: Physical access control, personal identification, law enforcement applications, social welfare security.
- Finger Oscan Electro-Optics Inc.
466 Tremblay Road, Ottawa, Ontario Canada K1G 3R1 Phone: (613) 845-4600 Fax: (613) 745-7953 U Electro-Optical scanner of the finger's pattern. Uses a one-to-one mapping of a gray-scale pixel to binary pixel. 1 in x 1 in. approxiamate file size of 300 bytes. Scanning speed of 1.5 seconds matching speed of 4.5 seconds. Standard Interfaces.
Phase: Pre-production Palmetrics
PO Box 606, Portland, OR 97207 George Osgood Phone: (503) 292-8682 Fax: (503) 292-8697 U Resurrects the old palmguard biometric verification technology. Examines one square in. of the palm. Originally $20,000, but should be significantly cheaper when released in early 1992. Product-Model PG-2001 Biometric Identification Unit.
Notes: User ID, System Access
- Keystroke Phoenix Software Company
5933 W. Century Suite 1200, Los Angeles, CA 90045 Fred Hoschett (Pres.) Phone: (213) 338-0400 U S/W keystroke dynamics authentication system product- Biolock
Phase: Pre-production Pideac, Inc.
PO Box 561, Yellow Springs, OH 45387 Dr. Charles Colbert Phone: (513) 767-7425 U Currently completing patent process in 16 countries. Uses contactless smart cards from AT&T to store templates. The user's hand can be places anywhere on the unit's glass platen and still be verified. Looks at finger length, width, and shape.
Notes: User ID, System Access
Product-Pideac Mark VI Personal Identity Verifier
- Fingerprint Printscan
England U Developed a fingerprint image capture system and verification algorithms which produce templates small enough to fit on a mag stripe card. Fingerprint cannot be reconstructed from the data.
Phase: Production Recognition Systems, Inc.
1589 Provincetown Drive, San Jose, CA 95129 William W. Wilson Phone: (408) 257-2477 Fax: (408) 725-0166 U ID3D Handkey: Hand Identity verifier
1 card: Mag stripe card that contains 9 bytes of geometry data popkey: PC program for using ID3D for password protected programs. Software for networking handkey stations.
Notes: Physical access control, personal identification, time and attendance
- Signature Rolls Royce
Coventry England U Working to apply acoustic sampling techniques to the process of identifying signatures based on how they sound. This is an offshoot of research undertaken to determine the integrity of engine blades. Potential for low cost devices.
- Fingerprint Sept Caen
Caen France U Use fingerprint scan technologies in conjunction with smart cards.
- Fingerprint Sept Caen
Caen France U Uses a magnetically sensitive tablet and special pen. Used with application that also use smart cards.
- Voice Sept Caen
Caen France U Voice verification in conjunction with smart cards.
- Voice Technologia Systems
Chicago, IL U Uses technology developed in Israel and features a reference template of only 35 bytes, the lowest of any vendor.
- Voice Texas Instruments U Supplied technology to VARs in the form of PC boards and licenses. Dropped this technology and is focusing efforts on integrated telecommunication applications.
Phase: Development Thumbscan, Inc.
1919 S. Highland Ave. 118-C, Lombard, IL 60148 Phillip St. Aubin Phone: (708) 932-8844 Fax: (708) 495-0279 U Approximately $500 per unit planned for 1992. Fingerprint scanner.
Notes: Computer access control.
- Fingerprint Time Group
Ottawa Ontario U The company has developed and tested internally, a series of prototype fingerprint verification systems during the past two years.
- Fingerprint TMS
Coventry, RI U Offer several versions of its fingerprint verification technology. A 24 byte referencetemplate is featured, the smallest of any fingerprint device on the market. The user provides a manual inkless fingerprint an a card which is compared.
- Finger Toshiba
Irvine, CA U Looks at the full finger including knuckle creases. It is faster, requires a smaller data template and has lower false rejection rates than normal scanners. Consistency of pattern over users life has not been proven.
- Signature University of Kent U Uses pattern recognition algorithms. The process examines the signature looking for points of consistency in signing. For each user a different set of characteristics is selected based on pattern repeatability for that individual.
- Signature uti-maco Safeguard Systems
750 Old Main St., Rocky Hill, CT 06067 David M. Sasinouski Phone: (800) 394-4230 Fax: (203) 257-8390 U Biometric signature logon. Provides a surface for signature logon for IBM PCs.
- Voice Voice Check, Inc.
3450 Penrose Place Suite 220B, Boulder, CO 80301-1828 Bill Bigelow (Pres) Phone: (303) 440-9480 U No current information is available.
Phase: Pre-production Voice Sciences
750 Hammond Drive Bld. 7, Atlanta, GA 30328 Phone: (404) 255-8370 Fax: (404) 255-8333 U Computerized voice identification. Available for low-cost micro-computers. Converts voice print into a numerical equivalent. Voice print can be stored in a computer or on the magnetic stripe on the back of the card.
Notes: System access, credit card authorization, ATM Cards, Driver's License Verification, Software Security, Drug and Alcohol impairment detection, Lie detection.
Phase: Production Voice Strategies
4555 Corporate Drive Suite, Troy, MI 48098
Phone: (313) 641-8600 Fax: (313) 641-6590 U Voice print indentification, used through a telephone handset, standard specs. 16 doors (expandable) 1000 users (expandable), can be done in any language and phrases can be programmed.
Notes: Access control, time and attendance, voice mail, machine or equipment control.
- Signature Xenetek
150 Professional Center Dr., Rohnert, CA 94928 Sue Weinreb Smith Phone: (707) 586-0577 Fax: (707) 586-0576 U Production of their vericator device will begin during 1992. The verificator is a sensitive tablet with which any writing device can be used. FRR performance of 0.13% and FAR of 0.29% for three attempts was tested. 3 minute enrollment time, 1 second authentication time.
Phase: Production Zenetic International LTD
8 Faraday Bldg., Highfields Science., University Blvd, Nottingham Ng7 2QP C.S. Jennings (Pres.) Phone: (0602) 228502 Fax; (0602) 225013 U The voice verifier has a vocabulary of 250 words broken into 5 groups of 50. LCD display prompts user with words. User enters a pin. The ZI2000 can store templates for 1500 users. Product-ZI2000 Voice Recognition System
Notes: Physical access control.
acoustics George Papcun Voice Authentication Based on Inerred Articualtory Parameters LANL, George Papcun, C-3, MS B265 U
gesture recognition George Papcun Speech and speaker recognition and related speech technologies based on inferred articulatory parmeters LANL, George Papcun, C-3, MS B265 U
x-ray tracing George Papcun
Timothy R. Thomas
Simon Levy Inferring articulation and recognizing gestures form acoustics with neural network trained on x-ray micrombeam data George Papcun, C-3, MS B265 U
- iris William Barton
Tom Easton Iris (book reviews) Analog Science Fiction-Science Fact 110 146 (2) Aug. 1990 U
- voice recogntion
speech recognition Pallab Ghosh Forecasts: The new voice of reason Management Today 94 Jan. 90 U
- voice recogntion
telephone Bart Ziegler Want to phone home? Just say: "Mom" Business Week 94B Feb. 22 '93 U
- voice recognition Jack Robertson Pocketful of change. (forthcoming voice-entry personal communications devices) Electronic News 38 10 July 6 '92 U
- voice recognition
Phillip J. Klass Military, civil applications seen in USAF voice identification system Aviation Week and Space Technology 135 57 April 6 '92 U
- voice recognition Subrata Das
Arthur Nadas The power of speech Byte 17 151(6) April '92 U
problems Jolyon Jenkins Scientific Laws? (problems with forensic science) New Statesman & Society 6 65 Aug. 24 '92 U
- Eyedentify Inc. Paul M. Eng Bits & Bytes Business Week 162 Nov 11 '91 U
eye scanners Paul M. Eng How Chicago cops look criminals right in the eye=2E Business Week 162 Nov 11 '91 U
retinal scanning Kathleen K. Wiegner Eyes only Forbes 145 160 April 2 '90 U
forensics Mark LaPedus
Dave Andrews PCs catch criminals using fingerprint analysis Byte 18 34 Oct '93 U
privacy unknown Fingerprint law voted on welfare: county on Long Island enacts measure against fraud - state official opposed 142 B12 (N) pB1 (L) Sept 15 '93 U Suffolk county legeislature approves plan to fingerprint welfare recipients in spite of New York state oppositon.
- fingerprint unknown Goldfinger Discover 13 16 March '92 U Gold particles used to pick up fingerprints
forensics Jon Zonderman High-tech crime hunters Popular Mechanics 168 29 Dec '91 U
- fingerprint Elizabeth Hickley Here, fingers tell all Insight 7 28 Aug 26 '91 U role of FBI's latent fingerprint section disaster squad in identifying remains of American citizens
forensics Katherine Greene
Richard Greene The new crimebusters Redbook 176 40 Feb '91 U technological advances in criminal investigation
Family Security Systems Leslie Brokaw Ink it Inc. 12 23 Nov '90 U Family Security Systems' dry ink fingerprinting kits
forensics unknown Vacuum chamber helps police get their man Design News 46 37 nov '90 U fingerprint cyanoacrylate vacuum chamber
- fingerprint unkown System lifts fingerprints from materials Design News 46 41 Jan 8 '90
safety and security measures Charles Piller Privacy in Peril: how computers are making private life a thing of the past Macworld 10 124 July '93 U Special report on electronic privacy: includes related articles on consumer-privacy code, the ease of gathering private information and safeguarding privacy
social aspects Roger Rosenblatt Who killed privacy? The New York Times Magazine 24 Jan 31 '93 U
social aspects Julia Reed What ever happened to privacy? (the decline of private life) Vogue 180 316 Feb '90 U
management Stephen Manes No, Virginia, there's no such thing as total electronic privacy PC Computing 4 72 April '91 U
data processing Kathleen Flynn Protect Your Privacy PC Magazine 11 32 April 14 '92 U
sourcebook Miller, Ben
The 1994 Advanced Card and Identification Technology Sourcebook (Incorporating the IC "Smart Card" industry directory and the biometrics & identification industry directory) Miller, Ben fifth edition 1993 Warfel & Miller, Inc. 11619 Danville Drive Rockville, MD 20852 U From Personal Identification News, this book contains a listing fo over 340 organizations active in the smart card, magnetic stripe card, RFID, biometric, cryptography, and electronic photo ID markets. Each listing includes a summary of products and company information. There is also a comprehensive glossary of industry terms, a section containing market research and articles, a photo showcase and extensive cross-referenced indices.
PIN various Personal Identification News ISSN 0883-5608 vol. 8 Nos. 6-10 June -November 1992 Warfel & MIller, Inc. U (The International Newsletter of Biometrics, Smart Cards & Security Technology)
PIN various Personal Identification News ISSN 0883-5608 vol. 9 Nos. 1,2,6 Jan., Feb., July 1993 Warfel & Miller, Inc. U (The International Newsletter of Biometrics, Smart Cards & Security Technology)
- DNA typing
Legal Medicine Wiegand, P
Brinkmann, B DNA Typing of Debris from Fingernails
International Journal of Legal Medicine 106 81-83 1993, Issue 2 U
- DNA typing
Forensics Schneider, P. M.
Experience with the PCR-Based HLA-DQ-Alpha DNA Typing System in Routine Forensic Casework International Journal of Legal Medicine 105 295-299 1993, Issue 5 U
- DNA typing
DNA Typing has Become an Important Police Tool Canadian Medical Asssociation Journal 149 464-466 1993, Issue 4 U
- DNA typing
NRC Report on DNA Typing Science 260 1057-1059 1993, Issue 5111 U
- DNA typing
Forensics Shipp, E.
Henry, B. Effects of Argon-Laser Light, Alternate Source Light, and Cyanoacrylate Fuming on DNA Typing of Human Bloodstains Journal of Forensic Science 38 184-191 1993, issue 1 U
- DNA typing
Population Genetics Deruiter, J.R.
Inoue, M. Symposium on Genetic-Markers (DNA-Typing, Proteins) in Sociobiology and Population Genetics, Introductory Remarks Primates 34 321-321 1993, issue 3 U
- DNA Fingerprints
Paternity Yassouridis, A.
Calculating Paternitiy Probabilities from DNA Multilocus Fingerprints in Some Cases of Deficiency
Electrophoresis 14 978-985 1993, issue 10 U
- FIngerprints Vernon, D. Automatic Detection of Secondary Creases in Fingerprints Optical Engineering 32 2626-2623 1993, issue 10 U
- DNA Fingerprints Scott, D.A.
Leung, F.C. A Computer-Program to Aid in Calculating Similarity Indexes from DNA Fingerprints Biotechniques 14 980-983 1993, issue 6 U
- Fingerprints Bramble, S.K.
Creer, K. E.
Ultraviolet Luminescence from Latent Fingerprints Forensic Science International 59 3-14 1993, issue 1 U
- Fingerprints Chesher, B.K.
Rowe, W. F.
Use of the Omniprinttm 1000 Alternate Light-Source to Produce Florescence in Cyanoacylate-Developed Latent Fingerprints Stained with Biological Stains and Commercial Fabric Dyes Forensic Science International 57 163-168 1992, issue 2 U
- DNA Fingerprints Li, C.C.
Chakravarti, A. Similarity of DNA Fingerprints Due to Chance and Relatedness Human Heredity 43 45-52 1993, issue 1 U
Genetic Identity Bown, W.
Race, Crimes, and Genetic Fingerprints New Scientist 137 6 1993, isssue 1857 U
- DNA Fingerprints
Graffius, M. DNA Fingerprints New Scientist 138 45 1993, issue 1868 U
- Speech Recognition
AT&T Wattenburger, B.L.
Lively, B.L. Serving Customers with Automatic Speech Recognition Human Factors Issues AT&T Technical Journal 72 28-41 1993, issue 3 U
- Speech Recognition Roe, D.B.
Wilpon, J.G. Whither Speech Recognition - the Next 25 Years IEEE Communications Magazine 31 54-62 1993, issue 11 U
- Voice Recognition
Neural Networks Sato, K.
Salokhe, V.M. Voice Recognition by Neural-Network Under Tractor Noise Transactions of the ASAE 36 1223-1227 1993, isssue 4 U
- Speech Recognition Self, K. Prolog to - Signal Modeling Techniques in Speech Recognition Proceedings of the IEEE 81 1214 1993, issue 9 U
- Genetic Identity Lange, K.
Sinsheimer, J.S. Calculation of Genetic Identity Coefficients Annals of Human Genetics 56 339-346 Oct. 1992 U
- Voice Recognition Roe, D=2EB. Voice Recognition over the Telephone BYTE 18 114-115 1993, isssue 11 U
- Access Control
Laih, C.S. The Design of Dynamic Access-Control Scheme with User Authentication Computers and Mathematics with Applications 25 27-32 1993, isssue 7 U
- Voice Recognition
TI Patton, R.
TI Squeezes Voice Recognition Dialer to PCmcia Size Electronics 66 11 1993, issue 12 U
- Genetic Identity Rasmuson, M.
Variation in Genetic Identity Within Kinships Heredity 70 266-268 March 1993 U
- Voice Recognition Flaherty, M.J.
Roe, D.B. Orthoganal Transformations of Stacked Feature Vectors Applied to HMM Speech Recognition IEE Proceedings - I Communications Speech and Vision 140 121-126 1993, issue 2 U
- Speech Recognition Bronkhors, A.W.
A Model for the Context Effects in Speech Recognition Journal fo the Acoustical Society of America 93 499-509 1993, issue 1 U
- Speech Recognition Wulfman, C.E.
Fagan, L.M. Graphical Access to Medical Expert Systems .5. Integration with Continuous-Speech Recognition Methods of Information in Medicine 32 33-46 1993, issue 1 U
- Voice Recognition Cass, O.W. A Large-Vocabulary, Speaker-Independent Voice Recognition System for Recording and Receiving ERCP Data and Pictures, and Producing Reports Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 39 249 1993, issue 2 U
- Facial Recognition Hoptman, M.J.
Davidson, R.J. Benton Facial Recognition Task - a Psychometric Evaluation Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neurospsychology 15 67 1993, issue 1 U
- Voice Recognition
Pathology Reporting Teplitz, C.
Cashman, H. Advances in Standardized and Transcriptionist-Free Surgical Pathology Reporting Using Integrated Artificial-Intelligence Voice Recognition and Laboratory Information Systems Laboratory Investigation 68 A143 1993, isssue 1 u
- Gesture Recognition
Access Control Mardia, K.V.
Sheehy, N. Techniques for Online Gesture Recognition on Workstations Image and Vision Computing 11 283-294 1993, issue 5 U
- Kierman, Vincent Automation takes a hand in passport control New Scientist 140 10 10/16/93 U
- handwriting recognition O'Malley, Chris Penning your password Popular Science 244 56 April 1994 U
- Garcia, C. Putting the Finger on Security Time 79 4/3/89 U
- Hof, R.D. Forget the I.D.--Let's See Your Eyeball Business Week 109 11/21/88 U